Proyectos Internacionales

 PROYECTOS ACTUALES:

Listados por órden alfabético. Además del resumen de los objetivos de la investigación, se indican también los enlaces directos a las páginas web del proyecto (si existen), el correo electrónico de contacto del responsable de la investigación y los diferentes productos divulgativos relacionados.

Proyecto: MYOCEAN
Development and pre-operational validation of upgraded gmes marine core services and capabilities (FP7-SPACE-2007-1)
Periodo: 2009 – 2030
Coord.: P. Bahurel (MERCATOR)
http://www.myocean.eu.org/
MyOcean is a project granted by the European Commission within the GMES Program (7th Framework Program), whose objective is to define and to set up (definition, design, development and validation) a concerted and integrated pan-European capacity for ocean monitoring and forecasting using nationally-available skills and resources. The areas it is aimed at are: Maritime Security, Oil Spill Prevention, Marine Resources Management, Climate Change, Seasonal Forecasting, Coastal Activities, and Monitoring Ice Sheet surveys, Water Quality and Pollution.

Proyecto: EUROFLEETS S2
New Operational steps towards an Alliance of European research fleets (312762 – CP &CSA)
Periodo: 2013 – 2017
Coord.: Jacques Binot (IFREMER)
The marine environment is a major source of economic growth that should be harnessed. With 70,000 km of coastline, the world’s largest Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and 22 EU member states out of 27 with at least one maritime border, the EU will, and will continue to play an essential role in marine and maritime activities. The maritime economy accounts for 5% of European economic activity and the EU’s maritime regions account for almost 40% of its GDP (Gross Domestic Product). Oceans and seas also play a key role in climate change that has huge consequence on EU growth.

Proyecto: IMCONET
Interdisciplinary Modelling of Climate Change in Coastal Western Antarctica – Network for Staff Exchange and Training (Marie Curie Actions) (PEOPLE-IRSES/1920, Referencia 318718)
Periodo: 2013 – 2017

Proyecto: DEVOTES
DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status (FP7 308392)
Periodo: 2012 – 2016
Coord.: Angel Borja (AZTI)
http://www.devotes-project.eu/
The Marine strategy European framework establishes the goals to protect the marine environment more effectively. Among other things, it establishes that before 2020 all the country members must assess the state of health of their marine ecosystems and the impact of human activities on them. This information is crucial to decide the most suitable policy to preserve the seas. The DEVOTE project aims to obtain the genetic sequence of phytoplankton to discover which species compose it and which of them live in every water, either pristine or polluted. These new technologies will enable the development of kits to analyze the sea’s health just with a drop of water. More than 250 scientists from 23 scientific centers from 12 countries will be involved in the project. They are from Europe but also from other countries such as Ukraine, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and the USA. Scientists will study the impact of human activities and global change in the Atlantic Ocean, the Baltic Sea, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The project is coordinated by the scientist Ángel Borja at AZTI-Tecnalia (Spain) and has a budget of € 12 million, 9 of which are funded by the European 7th Framework Programme. Its objectives are: 1. To analyze different parameters to describe the state of marine ecosystems, such as biodiversity alterations, introduction of alien species or the commercial fisheries situation and alsochanges in the food web, eutrophication, pollutants within water and sea products, or the presence of rubbish and noises in the sea. Main human activities and social and economic factors will be also considered. 2. To develop innovative integrative modeling tools to improve the understanding of ecosystem and biodiversity changes. The tools can be used by statutory bodies, companies and marine research institutes to monitor biodiversity, applying both empirical and automatic data acquisition. 3. To recommend the authorities which are the best measures to achieve a sustainable management of the ocean. The measures will affect anyone related to the marine ecosystem: from governments and international marine agreements, until companies and industry (fisheries, aquaculture or transport). The measures should be implemented in 2020.

Proyecto: PEGASO
EMISIONES DE GASES Y AEROSOLES DERIVADOS DEL PLANCTON EL EL OCEANO AUSTRAL (CTM2012-37615)
Periodo: 2013 – 2015

Proyecto: MOWER
EROSIVE FEATURES AND ASSOCIATED SANDY DEPOSITS GENERATES BY THE MEDITERRANEAN OUTFLOW WATER AROUND IBERIA: PALEOCEANOGRAPHIC, SEDIMENTARY & ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS (CTM2012-39599-C03-02)
Periodo: 2013 – 2015
Coord.: Francisco Javier Hernández-Molina (Universidad de Vigo)
The MOWER Project is an innovative and coordinated research project promoting a high quality inter and multi-discipline approach. The main aim of the MOWER Project is to identify and study the erosional features (terraces and channels) and associated sedimentary deposits (sandy contourites) generated by the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) around the middle continental slope of Iberia during its Pliocene and Quaternary evolution. This general objective involves the study of alongslope processes (contourites) associated with the MOW and downslope processes (turbidity flows, debris flows, etc..) in the architecture and evolution of the Iberian margin. In addition, the MOWER Project is directly related to the recent Expedition 339 (November 2011 to January 2012) of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). The MOWER Project comprises several activities as:: I.- The analysis and study of data from IODP Expedition-339 in the Gulf of Cadiz; II.- The acquisition and study of new data in two areas on the continental slope margins around Iberia (Gulf of Cadiz and west off Portugal) in different geological contexts but related regionally, and III.- The study of previous data obtained under previous projects or donated by various companies in the Alboran Sea, Galicia and Cantabrian margins. The correlation of these results will provide a new understanding of the evolution of our continental margins with important conceptual and applied implications. The specific objectives are: 1) To characterize the influence and control in a large-scale of the continental margin prior to and during the development of the erosional features and associated sandy contourites, 2) To establish the Pliocene and Quaternary evolution of the erosional features and associated sandy contourites particularly dealing with sedimentological aspects and addressing geohazards deducted from such evolution, and 3) To determine the latest sedimentary, oceanographic and paleoceanographic processes. Consequently, the MOWER Project, although is in part a continuation of a previous project (CONTOURIBER Project), will now provide, for the first time, a specific and innovative research line with scientific objectives related to erosional features and sandy contourites little known until now. The MOWER project meets the objectives of the VI National Research Plan, Development and Technological Innovation (2008-2011), as well as and the Orden ECI/3354/2007 (BOE, 20 Nov., 2007). This research project would not be possible without the participating institutions and researchers which make up a significant critical mass, and represents an effort of integration and collaboration between national research groups of proven experience in Marine Geology research. We propose a scheme for scientific cooperation that will allow to achieve objectives that, undoubtedly, would hardly be addressed with other more narrowly way; this scientific cooperation has important implications such as: a) The consolidation of a research group established around the previous CONTOURIBER Project (2009-2011); b) To promote quality research; c) To internationalize the proposed activities in the context of those to be developed within the IODP Expedition 339; and d) To obtain results with a high potential for scientific impact in the field of marine geology, geophysics, oceanography, paleoceanography and also a clear impact on aspects of economic interest. The background and previous results of the research groups participating in this project tested the effectiveness of such an integrated of multidisciplinary researches, to achieve a common scientific objective. They constitute a research group with a very important scientific production of international level. As for the applicability and transfer of results to be expected, the geological and geophysical infrastructure will be increased to study the little known erosional features and associated sandy deposits, which have been recorded in the recent evolution of the Iberia margins. The conceptual models associated with these features and contouritic deposits are still pending to be proposed, and their scientific implications and economic potential make the MOWER Project an innovative project with leading scientific outcomes associated with active submarine processes, stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleoceanography, paleoclimatology, geological hazards, and economic implications for its potential mineral and energy resources. The close collaboration with various companies that are proposed under this MOWER Project not only supports the applicability of the project but also ensures the transfer of the expected results.

Proyecto: MIDAS-7
PRODUCTOS Y APLICACIONES AVANZADOS DE SMOS Y FUTURAS MISIONES. PARTE CSIC (AYA2012-39356-C05-03)
Periodo: 2013 – 2015
Coord.: Mercè Vall-llossera (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya)
The SMOS satellite, launched in November 2009, is the first ESA Earth observation (EO) mission coled by Spain. With an unprecedented EO scientific, technological, and industrial leading role, Spain’s goal has been to produce, for the first time, global sea surface salinity and soil moisture maps by means of the novel synthetic aperture interferometric radiometer (MIRAS). Thanks to the Spanish National R&D program and ESA funding, and with the support from CDTI, the proposing team has successfully addressed various scientific and technological challenges, such as: i) establish an operational data production and dissemination centre in Spain, the CP34; ii) to bring together scientific and technological know‐how within the CP34 associated expert centre, the SMOS BEC; and iii) to consolidate new teams and facilities dedicated to the development of SMOS products. After two years of intense work, the SMOS nominal products will be soon consolidated. As such, this proposal also focuses, for the first time, on the development of novel SMOS‐based added‐value products and new applications of interest for the industry and public managers. Moreover, to capitalize the know‐how of the team, this proposal addresses new challenges as the SMOS synergy with new EO missions or the development of new products beyond SMOS. However, to maintain the international role of Spain in this leading‐edge scientific area is necessary to consolidate this specialized and talented team together with its synergy with the industry.

Proyecto: MICRO B3
Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology (Project number 287589)
Periodo: 2012 – 2015
Coord.: Frank Oliver Glöckner (Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany)
http://www.microb3.eu/
Micro B3 will develop innovative bioinformatic approaches and a legal framework to make large-scale data on marine viral, bacteria; archaeal and protists genomes and metagenomes accessible for marine ecosystems biology and to define new targets for biotechnological applications. Micro B3 will build upon a highly interdisciplinary consortium of 32 academic and industrial partners comprising world-leading experts in bioinformatics, computer science, biology, ecology, oceanography, bioprospecting and biotechnology, as well as legal aspects. Micro B3 is based on a strong user- and data basis from ongoing European sampling campaigns to long-term ecological research sites. For the first time a strong link between oceanographic and molecular microbial research will be established to integrate global marine data with research on microbial biodiversity and functions. The Micro B3 Information System will provide innovative open source software for data-processing, -integration, -visualisation, and -accessibility. Interoperability will be the key for seamless data transfer of sequence and contextual data to public repositories. Micro B3 will allow taking full advantage of current sequencing technologies to efficiently exploit large-scale sequence data in an environmental context. Micro B3 will create integrated knowledge to inform marine ecosystems biology and modelling. Moreover, it will facilitate detecting candidate genes to be explored by targeted laboratory experiments for biotechnology and for assigning potential functions to unknown genes. Micro B3 will develop clear IP agreements for the protection and sustainable use of pre-competitive microbial genetic resources and their exploitation in high potential commercial applications. To underline the translational character of Micro B3, outreach and training activities for diverse stakeholders are planned as well as an Ocean Sampling Day to transparently make project results accessible and gain valuable user feedback.

Proyecto: MED JELLYRISK
Monitoreo Integrado de las proliferaciones de medusas con impactos antropogénicos y climáticos en el Mar Mediterráneo (zonas costeras): riesgos tróficos y socio-económicos” (ENPI CBCMED)
Periodo: 2012 – 2015
Coord.: Stefano Piraino (CONISMA (ROMA-ITALIA))
http://www.icm.csic.es/es/content/www.jellyrisk.eu
MED-JELLYRISK is the first CBC project aiming the assessment of socio-economic impacts of jellyfish blooms and the implementation of mitigation countermeasures. MED-JELLYRISK addresses an integrated coastal management approach into 10 Marine Coastal Zones (MCZs) in the Western and Central Mediterranean sea basin to face with increased jellyfish proliferations. In these areas, jellyfish outbreaks represent a growing threat for humans and coastal activities (including leisure and aquaculture).
The MED-JELLYRISK Consortium includes 5 partner institutes from Italy, Malta, Spain, Tunisia. The Project will appoint a CBC network of experts to develop and apply shared protocols to quantify the environmental and health risks of jellyfish proliferations, informing the development of management guidelines and forthcoming adaptive strategies, policies and regulations, for cooperative ICZM in the Med Sea. Involvement of 31 Associate Partners (Governmental Bodies, Regional Water Agencies, SMEs, Marine Protected Areas, Health Organizations and Hospitals – with responsibilities for MCZs management – from Eastern Mediterranean and North Adriatic Sea ensures a geographical multiplier effect, extending the value of project outcomes beyond the partnership consortium as well as the CBCMED territorial limits.
The strategic objective is the promotion of joint planning methodologies. In particular, the project will promote the implementation of risk assessment, prevention and mitigation of negative impacts resulting from jellyfish proliferations in the 10 MCZs. Planned results are:
– Promote understanding of the risk of jellyfish impacts of the general public and stakeholders in the MCZs and that they actively contribute to data collection (through citizen science campaigns) (Communication, Dissemination) – Training to concerned stakeholders in the MCZ and building capacities to apply integrated monitoring protocols including the creation of Local Emergency Task Forces (Capitalization, Knowledge transfer) – Development of cross-border cooperative socio-economic and epidemiological assessments of jellyfish emergencies and hazards across different MCZs from Spain to Italy, Malta and Tunisia (Assessment) – Creation of risk maps and shared databases for Jellyfish proliferations, to be updated and applied by stakeholders to rank water quality and safety areas in MCZs (Prevention) – Development, assayed and implementation of mitigation countermeasures (e.g. including protective anti-medusa nets) (Mitigation).
MED-JELLYRISK is a newly funded ENPI-CBC MED Strategic Project supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme Priority 1 – Topic 3 – Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Planned activities within the frame of the Project are expected to be fulfilled between December 18th 2012 and December 31st 2015. The Institut of Marine Sciences (ICM – CSIC) of Barcelona is one of the 5 partners involved in the MED-JELLYRISK Project and has the responsibility of coordinate and develop activities within the frame of the Project in two marine coastal areas, coast of Catalonia and the Mar Menor lagoon.

Proyecto: The MED-JELLYRISK Consortium includes 5 partner institutes from Italy, Malta, Spain, Tunisia. The Project will appoint a CBC network of experts to develop and apply shared protocols to quantify the environmental and health risks of jellyfish proliferations, informing the development of management guidelines and forthcoming adaptive strategies, policies and regulations, for cooperative ICZM in the Med Sea. Involvement of 31 Associate Partners (Governmental Bodies, Regional Water Agencies, SMEs, Marine Protected Areas, Health Organizations and Hospitals – with responsibilities for MCZs management – from Eastern Mediterranean and North Adriatic Sea ensures a geographical multiplier effect, extending the value of project outcomes beyond the partnership consortium as well as the CBCMED territorial limits.
The strategic objective is the promotion of joint planning methodologies. In particular, the project will promote the implementation of risk assessment, prevention and mitigation of negative impacts resulting from jellyfish proliferations in the 10 MCZs. Planned results are:
– Promote understanding of the risk of jellyfish impacts of the general public and stakeholders in the MCZs and that they actively contribute to data collection (through citizen science campaigns) (Communication, Dissemination) – Training to concerned stakeholders in the MCZ and building capacities to apply integrated monitoring protocols including the creation of Local Emergency Task Forces (Capitalization, Knowledge transfer) – Development of cross-border cooperative socio-economic and epidemiological assessments of jellyfish emergencies and hazards across different MCZs from Spain to Italy, Malta and Tunisia (Assessment) – Creation of risk maps and shared databases for Jellyfish proliferations, to be updated and applied by stakeholders to rank water quality and safety areas in MCZs (Prevention) – Development, assayed and implementation of mitigation countermeasures (e.g. including protective anti-medusa nets) (Mitigation).

MED-JELLYRISK is a newly funded ENPI-CBC MED Strategic Project supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme Priority 1 – Topic 3 – Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Planned activities within the frame of the Project are expected to be fulfilled between December 18th 2012 and December 31st 2015. The Institut of Marine Sciences (ICM – CSIC) of Barcelona is one of the 5 partners involved in the MED-JELLYRISK Project and has the responsibility of coordinate and develop activities within the frame of the Project in two marine coastal areas, coast of Catalonia and the Mar Menor lagoon.

Proyecto: MANIFEST
Acidificación marina: Nuevas perspectivas a partir de experimentos de manipulación con especies concretas y reconstrucciones paleoceanográficas en períodos de tiempo claves (CTM2012-32017)
Periodo: 2013 – 2015
The MANIFEST project delves into the study of ocean acidification effects by taking advantage of the expertise acquired in this subject by the project members over recent years. It takes advantage of the ICM-CSIC ideal set up to undertake experiments of pH manipulation by targeting marine organisms for which the effects of this environmental perturbation have not been rigorously tested, encompassing jellyfish, marine sponges, coccolithophores and cold-water corals. Some of the planned experiments have a tight connection with paleoceanography, having a focus on promising species as sources of paleoceanographic information (i.e. cold-water corals and coccolithophores). We will also determine coccolith weights in a suite of modern water samples from the world’s oceans, to gain insight on the effects of ocean acidification over this important phytoplanktonic group that are coccolithophores. In addition, the MANIFEST project aims to provide new evidence regarding the linkage between the Southern Ocean and the tropical Pacific Ocean over glacial to interglacial times and its role in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentration, from the comparison of deep-sea sediment core paleoreconstructions in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific and in the New Zealand Sector of the Southern Ocean. On shorter time-scales, the MANIFEST project will also test corals as paleoenvironmental archives: We will attempt to reconstruct past events of dense shelf water cascading in the North Western Mediterranean using high-resolution geochemical analyses of cold-water corals. Several cutting-edge analytical techniques will be used during this project, including innovative applications of Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled-Plasma mass spectrometry (LAICPMS) for high resolution depth-profiling analyses of single foraminifera and corals.

Proyecto: MAFIA
Migrants and Active Flux In the Atlantic Ocean (CTM2012-39587-C04-03)
Periodo: 2013 – 2015
Coord.: Santiago Hernández-León (Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria)
http://www.proyectomafia.blogspot.com/
Export flux in the ocean is primarily driven by the transport of dissolved organic carbon, sinking particles, and active flux. During the last decade, we have devoted an important effort to unmask the mechanisms involved in the active flux due to interzonal migrants. We observed that this flux could account for about half of the total export flux, mainly due to micronekton vertical migrants (a gap in our sampling of the ocean). The assessment of the total active flux (zooplankton plus micronekton) is of importance in the study of the downward transport of organic matter in the sea and it is rather unknown at the global scale. The present project seeks to study the total active flux in different areas of the Atlantic Ocean as a first evaluation of this flux at the large-scale. We also seek to study the effect of an increased productivity in the upper layers of the ocean on the increase of backscatters recently observed in the bathypelagic zones of the equatorial areas of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. We hypothesize that the increase in productivity due to the upwelling near the equator unveils the development of the so-called Ladder of Migration in the ocean. The migrant community descending from the shallower and more productive layers serves as food for the populations of the depths, and the species feeding on migratory forms can descend to even greater depths and also serve as food for the more deep-sea animals. In this way, organic matter from surface layers is actively transferred downward increasing the efficiency of the biological pump. Thus, the objectives of the project include (1) to assess the active flux due to zooplankton and micronekton, and identification of the main responsible species, (2) to assess the effect of upper ocean productivity on the zooplankton and micronekton active fluxes, (3) to assess the importance of neustonic assemblage on the feeding by meso- and bathypelagic organisms, and (4) to quantify the metabolic end products of this fauna and the enhancement of dissolved organic carbon and bacterial activity at depth. In order to achieve those objectives, the Project also seeks to innovate the sampling at the meso- and bathypelagic depths by improving acoustics, image processing and net sampling. This study will gather a multidisciplinary group of researchers and will provide a privileged and unique set of data about the, at present, poorly known active flux. If total active flux is confirmed as an important number, their assessment will be of paramount importance to the knowledge of the biological pump in the ocean.

Proyecto: LIFE CUBOMED
Development and eradication demonstration and control methods for an invasive species: Carybdea marsupialis (Cubozoa), Mediterranean. (LIFE08 NAT/E/000064)
Periodo: 2010 – 2015
Coord.: César Bordehore (Universidad de Alicante)
http://www.cubomed.eu/
The LIFE+ CUBOMED project was developed due to the need of study and understand the causes that produced the detection of large proliferations of Carybdea marsupialis (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) which were unusual in the Mediterranean Spanish coast.
One of the main objectives of CUBOMED is to develop a method and technique for the detection and quantification of Carybdea marsupialis with in order to find some solutions to reduce the population of box jellyfish and their growth rate, as well as clarify what are the environmental and ecological parameters that could enhance the populations of cubomedusa to grow. The study of the consequences for the coastal environments of those massive proliferations is also an objective of this project.
The main area of study of the CUBOMED project is the coast of Denia and two adjacent localities: Oliva and Denia. Moreover, some actions are developed along de Mediterranean Spanish coast, such as the jellywatch network for the detection of Carybdea marsupialis and other gelatinous organisms in our coast.

Proyecto: GRADIENTS
Estructura fina de los gradientes costeros a lo largo del a costa mmediterránea (CTM2012-39476-C02-02)
Periodo: 2013 – 2015
Coord.: Gotzon Basterretxea (IMEDEA)
Las aguas litorales son una zona de transición, el punto de encuentro y mezcla entre las aguas que provienen del continente y el océano. Es una zona de gran variabilidad que influye decisivamente en el transporte de nutrientes, plancton, larvas, contaminantes y sedimentos hacia aguas más profundas.
Los aportes continentales y los procesos físicos, como el viento, las olas, las mareas y las corrientes, hacen que en las aguas litorales la productividad biológica sea más elevada, los intercambios con el sedimento más efectivos y los procesos químicos extremadamente más intensos y dinámicos que a la zona oceánica. En el caso del Mediterráneo, el escaso forzamiento mareal y las condiciones oligotróficas que prevalecen en las aguas oceánicas durante gran parte del año, produce fuertes gradientes, por ejemplo, de productividad, que están estrechamente vinculados a procesos costeros de corta duración.
Los estudios basados en muestreos de alta frecuencia han demostrado que esta región contiene patrones de pequeña escala espacial con comunidades biológicas bien diferenciados y espacialmente estructurados que deben estar espacialmente adaptadas al escenario de flujos y gradientes específicos de cada lugar.
El proyecto GRADIENTS tiene como objetivo caracterizar este ecosistema y comprender los procesos físicos, químicos y biológicos asociados a su variabilidad a pequeña escala, considerando asimismo los efectos antropogénicos. El proyecto se centra en la caracterización de los procesos dominantes a escalas de espacio y tiempo adecuadas para el estudio de la zona litoral concreta. La descripción y caracterización de los gradientes de la zona costera Mediterránea no solo tiene una relevancia científica sino que también repercuten sobre la gestión de zonas costeras y sobre el desarrollo de las Directivas Europeas que regulan las aguas costeras y oceánicas.

Proyecto: FORMED
FORMAS DE FONDO Y SU DINÁMICA ACTUAL EN EL MARGEN CONTINENTAL MEDITERRÁNEO ESPAÑOL (CGL2012-33989 )
Periodo: 2013 – 2015
The proposed research project deals about the characterization of the large-scale bed forms (> 1 m) of the Spanish Mediterranean continental margin based on the analysis of their morphology and the study of contemporary processes involved in their formation and evolution. The multibeam bathymetry provided by the Secretaría de Pesca and other institutions allows a regional classification of bed forms based on their morphometric characteristics.
In parallel, a specific monitoring of hydrodynamics and sediment transport processes in the near-bottom boundary layer and the water column will be carried out to study: 1) wave-current processes potentially associated with dunes in the coastal area (Ebro Delta), 2) internal waves associated with sediment waves of prodelta (the Llobregat prodelta), 3) internal waves as potential generating mechanism of sediment waves on the continental slope (Gulf of Valencia) and 4) to investigate deep bottom currents as potential mechanism to explain the deep sediment waves (North of Menorca). The analysis of the interaction between bed forms and hydrodynamic forcing will be complemented by the application of models of sediment transport and bed form generation as well as flume tests.
Finally, bed forms will be analyzed as specific habitats in the Ebro delta and Cabo de Palos areas, characterized by their communities and benthic habitats. Habitat mapping techniques will be developed integrating physical, geological and biological information, in order to provide a useful tool in managing the marine environment. It is expected that results from the project will provide a regional overview of the bed forms of the Spanish Mediterranean continental margin as well as detailed information of those bed forms with greater uncertainty about the formation processes. The expected results may lead to a change in our perception of what are the dominant mechanisms of formation and evolution of bed forms and their rates of change. The combined use of the excellent available morphological database and field measurements using advanced instrumentation (benthic tripod, thermistor chains, multiparameter equipment, AUV, ROV\’s, etc) offers the opportunity to integrate information from different sources for a better understanding of the processes involved in bed forms formation.
The preparation of an Atlas of bed forms in the Spanish Mediterranean continental margin based on the observed morphologies will provide to both the scientific community and society in general, access to the present-day existing knowledge on this topic.

Proyecto: ECOWED
Acoplamiento pelago-bentónico en el modulador climático antártico: reacciones ecológicas al cambio climático en el Mar de Weddell, Antártida (CTM2012 39350-C02-01)
Periodo: 2013 – 2015
Pelagic-benthic coupling in the Antarctic climate modulator: ecological reactions to climate change in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica (ECOWED). The Weddell Sea (WS) in Antarctica plays an important role as a world climate regulator and at the same time, climate variation determines several marine processes taking place there. Under the frame of this tight relationship, the WS presents along its coastline different reactions to climate change, from drastic changes developing in few days (e.g., ice sheets collapses at the Antarctic Peninsula) to almost imperceptible variations throughout decades (e.g., iceberg calving from the southeastern coast). This intensity gradient produces different effects on the local benthos, which hosts communities as diverse and high in biomass as those found in the coral reefs at tropical latitudes. The ECOWED project proposes to study the pelagic-benthic coupling in the WS to improve our knowledge on the way ongoing climate change, developing at un-preceded pace, affects benthic coomunities and which is their response to it. The wide gradient of changes and its velocity demand a rapid scientific action. ECOWED plans two expeditions, in the Austral summers of 2013 and 2014, to three different regions of the WS apparently affected with different intensity by climate change. From West to East, the region of the Larsen A, B and C ice sheets (one of the most sensitive regions in the world to climate change), the Filchner Depression and Austasen (where very small positive temperature anomalies has been observed). This gradient will provide a rather complete spatial coverage, that due to its difficult access conditions is rather hard to accomplish. Based on this, the proposal also represents a unique opportunity to work in all these regions under the frame of the same project. The main ECOWED objectives are: 1. To analyze relationships between anthropogenic climate change (ACC), pelagic-benthic coupling and biogeochemical cycles based on the regional differences of the WS. 2. To analyze how pelagic-benthic coupling determines the structure and composition of local benthic communities. 3. To analyze benthic system reactions to environmental changes in regions with different ACC pressure within the WS. 4. To study biodiversity of benthic communities in the WS with special interest on sponges and cnidaria as structural species.

Proyecto: E-AIMS
Euro-Argo Improvements for the GMES Marine Services (C-SPACE/1493)
Periodo: 2013 – 2015

Proyecto: DOREMI
Remineralización de la materia orgánica en el océano: Limitaciones microbianas y biogeoquímicas (CTM2012-34294)
Periodo: 2013 – 2015
The new concept for the Microbial Carbon Pump (MCP) postulates mechanisms by which refractory organic matter is produced in the oceans through microbial activities, and the role that this refractory pool plays in carbon sequestration in marine systems. This postulate evokes the need to increase our understanding of organic matter transformation, particularly for the processes of organic carbon degradation. In this context, key questions about the drivers that govern these processes have been posed and require scientific answers. DO-RE-MI will examine the biological and biogeochemical mechanisms that hinder total DOC remineralisation in marine systems.
We will apply a multidisciplinary approach to the design of experiments, the field program and the analysis of the results. Our approach builds upon the strengths of the team members and collaborators who have varied expertise and can bring diverse methodological techniques and tools, and ideas originating in their different disciplines – microbial ecology, biogeochemistry, and physical oceanography. With these varied methodological strategies we will work to achieve the following objectives:
1) To quantify DOM remineralization in contrasting marine systems, 2) To test the effects of nutrient availability and microbial metabolic capability on the efficiency of DOM degradation, 3) To experimentally test whether DOC concentration and DOM chemical diversity can explain the limits of DOM degradation in the deep ocean and 4) to evaluate the role of different bacterial community structures in the degradation processes.

Proyecto: CALOCEAN-DOS
Cultivo larvario de calamares oceánicos (AGL2012-39077)
Periodo: 2013 – 2015
http://calocean.icm.csic.es/
Oceanic squids reach the higher cephalopod biomass worldwide and their fishery represents half of the total world cephalopod captures. However, present knowledge of their embryonic and larval stages is very poor. The main challenge of this research project is the culture of oceanic squid paralarvae, objective still not reached by any research team in the world. The attainment of this objective would allow the study under controlled conditions of the growth, behaviour and morphologic adaptations to the environment of oceanic squid paralarvae and will open the possibilities for their aquaculture. Embryos and paralarvae will be obtained using wild collected squids and in vitro fertilization techniques already used by this research team. We also aim to determine the maternal effects that will influence the subsequent egg and larval quality as well as to identify useful characters for rapid discrimination of the quality of hatchling individuals to be used in cultures. The species selected is the broadtail shortfin squid Illex coindetii, the main oceanic squid species fished in Iberian waters. This species belongs to the family Ommastrephidae, the most important fishery resource of oceanic squid worldwide Key words: cephalopods, squid, marine resources, larvae, nutrition

Proyecto: CITCLOPS
Citizens’ observatory for coast and oceans optical monitoring (FP7-ENV-308469)
Periodo: 2012 – 2015
Coord.: Luigi Ceccaroni (Bdigital (Spain))
http://www.citclops.eu/
he project aims to develop low-cost systems to retrieve and use data on water colour, transparency and fluorescence, specifically using smart-phone cameras and other sensors combined with georeferencing and a community-based Internet platform, inspired by existing experiences with other parameters (e.g., Secchi Dip-In, Coastwatch Europe and Oil Reporter). Simple and fast methods to establish the optical properties of water will be used; e.g., the colour through Forel-Ule observations, and transparency through a variant of the Secchi disc. People will be able to take photographs of the colour of the sea surface during their holidays, on ferries or other vessels, at the open sea or from the beach. Data (e.g., JPG phone-image, geolocation) are automatically uploaded through a specific service or application (such as Google+ or Facebook), archived remotely and processed, and resulting information is accessed through a webpage or a mobile application by end users. These are: policy makers and administrations, which will be able to use the information to improve the management of the coastal zone; and citizens, who will be able to maximize their experience in activities in which water quality has a role.

Proyecto: GEOMARGEN-II
Adquisición, procesado e interpretación de los datos del relieve del fondo oceánico en el área de la plataforma y talud continental superior de Túnez
Periodo: 2013 – 2015

Proyecto: VECTORS
Vectors of Change in oceans and Seas marine Life, Impact on Economic Sectors (266446 )
Periodo: 2011 – 2015
Coord.: Melanie Austen (Plympuoth Marine Laboratory)
http://www.marine-vectors.eu/
VECTORS aims to improve our understanding of how environmental and man made factors are impacting marine ecosystems now and how they will do so in the future. The project is addressing invasives, outbreaks and changes in fisheries distribution and productivity – in a sea with changing pressures including marine renewables, climate change, ocean acidification, fisheries and shipping. VECTORS will also examine how these changes will affect the range of goods and services provided by the oceans, the ensuing socio-economic impacts and some of the measures that could be developed to mitigate or adapt to these changes. VECTORS will address a complex array of interests comprising areas of concern for marine life, biodiversity, sectoral interests, regional seas, and academic disciplines as well as the interests of stakeholders. The project will also ensure that the links and interactions between these areas of interest are explored, explained, modelled and communicated effectively to the relevant stakeholders. The VECTORS consortium is extremely experienced and genuinely multidisciplinary. It includes a mixture of natural scientists, some with knowledge of socio-economic aspects, and social scientists (environmental economists, policy and governance analysts and environmental law specialists) with interests in natural system functioning. VECTORS is therefore fully equipped to deliver the integrated interdisciplinary research required to achieve its objectives with maximal impact in the arenas of science, policy, management and society.

Proyecto: MEDESS-4MS
Mediterranean Decision Support System for Marine Safety (MED 2S-MED11-01)
Periodo: 2012 – 2015
Coord.: Serghios Serghiou (Department of Merchant Shipping (DMS), Chipre)
http://www.medess4ms.eu/
MEDESS-4MS service is dedicated to the maritime risks prevention and strengthening of maritime safety related to oil spill pollution in the Mediterranean. The main goal of MEDESS-4MS is to deliver an integrated operational multi model oil spill prediction service in the Mediterranean, connected to existing oil spill monitoring platforms (EMSA-CSN, REMPEC and AIS data), using well established oil spill modeling systems, the environmental data from the GMES European Marine Service and the MS national ocean forecasting systems. The overall objectives of the project are: – To implement an integrated real time oil spill multi –model prediction service for the Mediterranean; – To implement an interconnected network of data repositories that will archive and provide in operational way access to all available environmental and oil spill data; – To develop an integrated user interface system with a unique Web point providing an interactive access to the different multi-model service scenarios, to suit the requirements of EMSA-CSN, REMPEC and the generic users. – To test the service functionalities with ‘key end-users’: REMPEC, EMSA and other end-users such as national agencies combating oil spills and private profit commercial companies; MEDESS-4MS does not aim at developing new elementary service chains but will integrate and consolidate the existing ones, based on the experience gained through the interaction with operational response agencies, REMPEC and EMSA during real oil spill incidents in the region and the demonstrations and inter-calibration exercises carried out in the framework of EC projects. The proposal consists from 6 Working Packages (WP): WP1 Project Management WP2 Information and awareness raising WP3 Capitalisation and long lasting effects WP4 To improve the evaluation and the monitoring of risks WP5 To strengthen common analytical and planning tools WP6 To compare and strengthen operational intervention systems All the activities in MEDESS4MS will be carried out in order to establish a sustainable integrated multi model oil spill prediction service; consortium and partners expertise, operational response agencies, international and European organizations and areas of responsibility, are well established to reach the project objectives. Seven of the project partners are operating during the last 10 years forecasting centers, while six partners are providing individually oil spill predictions at local and sub-regional level, in close cooperation with their national operational response agencies.

Proyecto: SMOS-MODE
SMOS MISSION OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA EXPLOITATION (ES1001)
Periodo: 2011 – 2015
http://www.smos-mode.eu/
This COST Action aims at coordinating the European studies concerning the oceanographic data exploitation of the European Space Agency Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission. Recently launched in November 2009, SMOS will provide for the first time Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) maps over the oceans. The monitoring of ocean salinity, a variable of renowned importance in the broader scientific context of the climate change analysis, underlines the European relevance of the Action. The overall goal targeted by the network is the synergy of the European efforts in the interpretation of the measurements and their applications, profiting from the imminent availability of SMOS data. This COST Action will coordinate European teams working on two major research areas. The first one will focus on the improvement and development of SMOS-derived data products. The second will assess the added value of such products in operational oceanography, process and climate studies. This Action is the ideal framework to capitalize the often fragmented efforts of the identified experts working in these research areas.

Proyecto: TOPCOP
TÓPicos de vanguardia en ecología de COpepodos: hacia una mejor comprensión del funcionamiento de factores clave reguladores de la dinámica de copépodos plantónicos marinos. (CTM2011-23480)
Periodo: 2012 – 2014
http://www.icm.csic.es/bio/projects/topcop/home.htm
Este estudio tiene como objetivo aumentar nuestro conocimiento sobre algunos procesos, poco estudiados, que presumiblemente juegan un papel relevante modulando la dinámica poblacional de las comunidades de copépodos en los sistemas marinos. Creemos que esto es importante ante el escenario de cambio global al que nos estamos enfrentando, ya que mejorará nuestra comprensión de los mecanismos y variables que intervienen en la dinámica de poblaciones de copépodos y por tanto nos permitirá aumentar la capacidad de predecir futuros cambios en las comunidades del zooplancton marino y, sus posibles consecuencias en la estructura y funcionamiento del ecosistema pelágico. Centraremos nuestra investigación en los dos extremos del desarrollo de copépodos (la etapa de nauplios y el envejecimiento de copépodos adultos), con seguridad las fases más sensibles y al mismo tiempo las menos estudiadas. Abordaremos algunos procesos ecofisiológicos relacionados con la alimentación y reproducción aún poco estudiados, pero a nuestro parecer muy importantes para una mejor comprensión de la dinámica poblacional de copépodos. Además, también estudiaremos el comportamiento de los copépodos marinos frente a posibles cambios en la composición nutricional (estequiométrica) de futuras comunidades de microplancton, y su incidencia en la determinación de patrones de selección de presas por parte de los copépodos. Los principales objetivos de esta propuesta pueden resumirse de la siguiente manera: 1. Aumentar nuestro conocimiento sobre la ecofisiología de los nauplios de copépodos y su capacidad para hacer frente a la variabilidad ambiental y mantener el éxito en el reclutamiento de sus poblaciones. 2. Estudiar el proceso de envejecimiento y senescencia de copépodos adultos, a fin de evaluar los cambios en su actividad alimenticia y reproductiva, y mejorar nuestra capacidad para predecir el destino de las poblaciones naturales de copépodos. 3. Estudiar los efectos de la composición estequiométrica del alimento en la actividad alimenticia y reproductiva de copépodos, y evaluar la importancia de una ingestión \”compensatoria\” frente a la alimentación selectiva como estrategia para determinar los patrones de selectividad en copépodos. La aproximación a seguir será de tipo experimental y se llevará a cabo con cultivos de copépodos en el laboratorio, bajo condiciones controladas.

Proyecto: TIC-MOC
Puntos de inflexión de la Cinta Transportadora Global (CTM2011-28867)
Periodo: 2012 – 2014
We propose to study the dynamics of three regions in the Atlantic Ocean, all of them key factors controlling the intensity of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), what we name Tipping Corners of the MOC (TIC-MOC). These are: (TC1) the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) west of the Strait of Gibraltar, to a large degree responsible for the salinification of the upper thermocline in the North Atlantic Ocean; (TC2) the North Brazil Current (NBC) system, which is the single path for water and heat return from the South to the North Atlantic, the returning limb of the MOC; and (TC3) the Atlantic Southern Ocean, where deep waters are formed and upwelled at very distinct rates, to a large extent depending on the intensity in the water-column stratification. At first sight the three regions could appear as disconnected but this is not so, not only because of their principal relevance to the MOC but also because they all experience switches between two different states, potentially capable of producing substantial changes in the intensity of the MOC and its transported properties. The dynamics of these switches, what we call corners, between two different states likely bears important similarities in all three regions; therefore, we will have a joint approach to the study of each individual region, sharing conceptual, numerical, and experimental tools and ideas. Our first objective is to investigate the controlling mechanisms and range of variability of the MOW characteristics as it plunges into the eastern Gulf of Cadiz, in particular why and how the MOW may switch from subcritical to supercritical conditions. Secondly, we will study the dynamics controlling the NBC, a very peculiar low-latitude western boundary current, with a bimodal behavior, alternating between straight alongshore flow and separation-retroflection. Finally, we will pursue to improve our understanding of the key mechanisms responsible of changes in Southern Ocean stratification and how it is related to the rate of deep water formation, upwelling and vertical mixing, and consequently, the CO2 physical and biological pumps. To reach each of these objectives we will use specific ideas but will also take advantage of common tools, in particular numerical models and instrumented buoys. We will optimize ship time, using the R/V García del Cid to study TC1 (21 days requested), and two transits of the R/V Hespérides to and from the Antarctic continent to investigate TC2 and TC3 (a total of 28 days requested, additional to transit times). Further, we will tune and use numerical models for the whole Atlantic (and global) ocean to understand each individual region, and the links between them, and will continue our development of instrumented drifters, which will be deployed in the NBC and Southern Ocean during the cruises. The global objective is to make the best out of our previous experience on these regions and to optimize the resources available for their study, in such a way that it leads to an iterative learning process, with the involvement of Spanish teams in international programs and a significant advance in our knowledge of these important regions.

Proyecto: SHAKE
Searching tHe record of pAst earthquaKes in south IbEria: Advanced technologies in terrestrial and marine paleoseismology (CGL2011-30005-CO2-02)
Periodo: 2012 – 2014
Coord.: Masana Closa, Eulàlia (Universitat de Barcelona)
The study of past earthquakes is essential in modern seismic hazard assessment. Seismicity models were traditionally based on archaeological, historical and instrumental seismicity records. However, in the last decades seismic models have been significantly improved by the fast advance of paleoseismology, which is a field of research that allows to characterize past earthquakes and to determine the seismic potential of the source faults based on the interpretation of the geological record. The strength of paleoseismology is that it covers much longer periods than the instrumental or historical catalogues. Obtaining reliable paleoseismological data is especially relevant in areas of relatively slow tectonic deformation, such as Iberia, where large earthquakes with long recurrence intervals occur. Initially developed for the study of faults onland, in the last few years the paleoseismological concepts are being increasingly exported to the marine and lacustrine environments. This recent expansion of paleoseismology to marine areas has great potential in terms of hazard assessment because the populated coastal areas are seriously threatened by earthquakes and tsunamis that are generated along offshore faults, such as in the Gulf of Cadiz and Alboran Sea (Southern Iberia). The SHAKE coordinated project aims to characterize the seismic potential of selected faults in southern Iberia with increased precision than so far achieved, by implementing a combination of cutting-edge techniques in terrestrial and marine paleoseismology, and by integrating onshore and offshore results and methods. This proposal builds up on the experience gained during the IMPULS (REN 2003-05996) and the EVENT (CGL 2006-12861-C02) I+D+I National projects, fruitful collaborations between the University of Barcelona (Subproject 1) and the UTM-CSIC (Subproject 2), focused on the South Iberian Margin. During these projects, we have demonstrated that the Eastern Betic Shear Zone and the Gulf of Cadiz contain seismogenic fault, i.e. faults that are able to produce catastrophic earthquakes. We also pioneered internationally the integration of submarine and terrestrial data to produce a complete image of seismogenic faults (e.g. Carboneras Fault). SHAKE represents the next step in understanding the seismic potential of the systems under study. The specific objectives are: 1. Obtention of seismic parameters of active faults from the Alboran Sea and Gulf of Cadiz. We aim for systematic fault recognition and characterization with the obtention of seismic parameters (length, area, depth and cumulative slip rate) of selected active faults from the Alboran Sea and Gulf of Cadiz. These are the essential parameters to be provided in seismic and tsunami hazard assessment. 2. In situ ROV characterization and dating of earthquake seafloor ruptures. The aim is to identify young earthquake ruptures and to calculate single event vertical and strike-slip components (i.e. coseismic slip), based on the ability to recognize and date individual event horizons as in trenches on land. During the SHAKE cruise on board the RV Sarmiento de Gamboa (30 days) , the ROV Victor 6000 which acquires data from just a few meters above the seafloor with cm-resolution, will yield a fine micro-bathymetric cartography and 3D photo-mosaicing (OTUS vertical camera) of well-preserved individual vertical- and strike-slip scarps with free faces. Near-bottom high-resolution sub-bottom profiler records may allow recognizing individual paleoearthquakes as seismic horizons. Age control of surface ruptures will be approached by sedimentation rates determined with 210Pb and 14C on shallow cores taken near the fault scarps with the ROV. 3. Evaluation of fluid circulation and characterization of associated benthic habitats. The aim is to evaluate the occurrence of fluid seepage processes along the fault scarps and to characterize the associated habitats. Faults with recent activity may control the fluid circulation within the sedimentary pile (fluid flow seepage) and can represent preferential routes for fluid escape processes. Using the ROV Victor 6000 we will search for zones of cold fluids and methane seepages, where carbonate crusts and chimneys represent peculiar ecosystems. As an added value for this project, the benthic habitats found in the selected sites from a physical and biological point of view will be characterized and described. Moreover, we will try to evaluate the importance of specific morphostructures in creating shelter microhabitats for benthic communities of wide naturalistic and economic interest.

Proyecto: PHYTOSCOPE
PHYToplankton biOdiversity multiScale Characterization using advanced OPtical technologiEs (BIO-2012-26)
Periodo: 2012 – 2014
http://phytoscope-project.icm.csic.es/
Given increasing interest in the development of the capabilities for small and large scale characterization of phytoplankton biodiversity, the aim of this project is to evaluate and optimize analytical methods based on advanced observational technologies (i.e., hyperspectral optical sensors and high spatial-temporal resolution platforms). The use of these new technologies to their full potential will allow a better assessment of the variability of phytoplankton in the coastal and open ocean, as well as a better understanding of the marine phytoplankton’s role in the global marine ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles.

Proyecto: MICROOCEAN PANGENOMES
MICROBIAL OCEAN PANGENOMES: FROM SINGLE CELL TO BACTERIAL POPULATION GENOMICS (CGL2011-26848)
Periodo: 2012 – 2014
Bacteria (prokaryotes) are a relevant component of the ocean’s food networks; they are responsible for 30% of the primary biomass production (fixing CO2) and 95% of the respiration of the ocean. They are accounting with 1029 cells in the global ocean representing a major player of the microbial world but only few thousands of species has been described so far. Although the concept of bacterial species is continuously transformed and under debate after a decade of comparative genomics, there is an accepted view of bacteria as a pan-genome. This bacterial concept is described by a \”core genome\” containing genes present in all strains, and a \”flexible or adaptive genome\” integrating those genes shared by few or unique to single strains usually constrained in genomic islands. New sequencing technologies have allowed to sequence many genomes from the same species to get a deeper resolution refereed as ‘Pan-Genomics’. This new concept has been mostly restricted to cultured microorganisms and mostly to pathogenic bacteria but the majority of bacteria in the ocean are uncultured and most importantly, are embedded in a network of plankton organisms (microbial loop) that range from viruses to zooplankton. Surprisingly the genetic complexity and interactions among these microorganisms remain largely un-investigated. The objectives of this proposal are: 1) Sequence ecologically relevant and uncultured bacterial genomes through Single Cell Genomics (SCG). 2) Describe the pool of core and adaptive genes of these uncultured genomes 3) Develop a new concept for bacterial “species” (or “units”) in the ocean for uncultured genomes, referred here as microbial ocean pangenomes by SCG. In addition, we will investigate (i) the distribution and genetic interaction of these bacterial ocean Pangenomes with different microbial plankton components (from protist to viruses) and (ii) the evolutionary mechanisms driving speciation. Taking into account that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a main diversification mechanism that occurs among distinct bacterial phylogenetic groups and based on the coexistence of bacterial with eukaryotic protist and bacteriophages, the evolutionary processes underlying the genomic patterns and structure within microbial ocean pangenomes may be expanded across domains of life. To successfully develop this proposal Single Amplified Genomes (SAGs) of uncultured and ecologically relevant bacterial genomes of the photic and deep ocean would be analyzed coupled with their corresponding Metagenomes and correlated to other quantitative and oceanographic data collection. Expected outcomes of this proposal are: (i) to develop a new concept of bacterial “unit” refereed as microbial ocean pangenomes in the ocean by SCG, (ii) to provide reference genomes for a meaningful interpretation of metagenome and metratranscriptome at population and community level and (iii) a unique framework to correlate microbial ocean pangenomes with eco-physicochemical parameters and other fractions of the microbial food web. The results of this proposal will shed light on the bacterial species concept, biogeography, ecological functioning and evolutionary mechanisms driving bacterial diversity in the oceans.

Proyecto: MESTRAL
Modelling and advanced observational tEchnologies to link tranSport processes, opTically-active constituents, and wateR light-field vAriability in a coastaL ecosystem (CTM2011-30489-C02-01)
Periodo: 2012 – 2014
The main goal of the project MESTRAL is to investigate the presence of small-scale transport processes in the Alfacs Bay, and how they affect the spatial patterns of optically active constituents (sediments, phytoplankton and dissolved organic matter) and the underwater light-field variability. It focuses at the Alfacs Bay because such a study would provide a better understanding of the influence of forcing and main circulation patterns in the functioning of a coastal ecosystem that sustains key economic activities in the region. The study stands upon two main sources of information: a set of field data obtained with high resolution (in space and time) observing systems, and a set of numerical models. The proposed observing system includes conventional instrumentation and advanced systems such as autonomous or unmanned vehicles, and very high resolution profilers. The numerical models are state of the art of ocean and estuarine models (ROMS and SID3D), already implemented at the Alfacs Bay, which will be coupled with optical (radiative transfer) water and biogeochemical models. The numerical models will be calibrated with the help of historical databases and with the collected data proposed here.

Proyecto: HADES-2
HAZARDS IN THE AEGEAN: IN-DEPTH EXPERIMENT TO STUDY TECTONIC STRUCTURE AND SEISMIC ACTIVITY (CTM2011-30400-C02-02)
Periodo: 2012 – 2014
The Mediterranean realm has favored the birth and growth of many successful civilizations because it contains numerous natural resources, and it is currently highly populated. However, the region is also threaten by numerous geo-hazards that have destroyed even entire communities in the historically recent past. In most regions, the geological processes that govern the occurrence, location, magnitude, recurrence and inter-relations of different geo-hazards are poorly known. To advance in their understanding is therefore of upmost scientific interest. This Coordinated Project proposes a basic-research investigation of the relationships among tectonics, magmatism, and sediment dynamics, and their influence on geo- hazards in the most tectonically active areas of the Mediterranean: the Aegean basin. The project integrates two Subprojects that collectively aim at investigating the entire geological system. The goal of one subproject is to study the large-scale structure and physical properties of subducting slab, mantle wedge, overriding lithosphere, and the seismic activity across the system. Those observations will help to analyze their role on stress distribution, mantle melting, arc volcanism and tectonics. The other subproject will focus on a higher-resolution, shallower-depth study of crustal-scale tectonics and sediment dynamics, including fault style and structure, long-term activity of fault systems, fault slip rates, marine paleo-seismology, and seismically-induced sediment dynamics. The coordinated goal of the project is to integrate the approaches of both Subprojects to obtain a holistic understanding of how those phenomena, operating at different time and space scales, inter- relate to modulate geo-hazards in the region. We selected the Aegean basin as natural laboratory because it is geodynamically very active, with active volcanism and the highest seismicity in the Mediterranean realm. Here, geo-hazards occur at a comparatively higher rate, and conceivably can be studied in a relatively short-duration project. Within the Aegean we selected a region that is feasible to survey and investigate during the project duration. The region has active crustal faulting and volcanism, and has been struck by historically documented earthquakes and tsunamis. The largest earthquake in Greece in the past 100 years occurred here in a normal fault loosely identified offshore, and caused a 20-m-high tsunami wave. We propose the acquisition of geophysical and geological data to address the project objectives. Multichannel seismic reflection and wide-angle seismic data, sub-bottom profiler, multi-beam bathymetry, sediment coring, marine and land electromagnetic data, and a seismological network will provide the multidisciplinary observations needed to study active geological processes and related geo-hazards. The results of the project will not only be scientifically sound and of societal relevance, but will also provide a data base that may be used by EMSO, the EU initiative to implement long-term submarine observatories within European waters to address, among other topics, geo-hazards. This Coordinated Project will establish the tectonic setting in an area that EMSO will possibly be monitoring. The Hellenic sea, particulalry the Aegean region to be studied in this project is proposed for the installion of several seafloor observatories (www.emso-eu.org/). The project results will be integrated within a broader perspective using ongoing studies of Mediterranean basins carried by the project members and international collaborators. In this respect the project will also be relevant to improve our knowledge of the Spanish Mediterranean basins, which share a similar geodynamic setting with the Aegean Sea.

Proyecto: HADES 1
Hazards in the Aegean: in-Depth Experiment to Study Tectonic Structure and Seismic Activity (CTM2011-30400-C02-01)
Periodo: 2012 – 2014
Hazards in the Aegean: in-Depth Experiment to Study Tectonic Structure and Seismic Activity (HADES). COORDINADOR: César R. Ranero INVESTIGATORES: César R. Ranero (IP Hades-1), Xavier Garcia (IP Hades-2), Roger Urgeles, Valenti Sallares, Guillermo Booth, Ingo Grevemeyer, Marion Jegen. La cuenca del Mediterráneo ha favorecido el nacimiento y desarrollo de grandes civilizaciones gracias a sus abundantes recursos naturales y en la actualidad esta altamente poblado. Sin embargo, la región Mediterránea también esta bajo amenaza de numerosos riegos geológicos (geo-riesgos) que en el pasado reciente han llegado a destruir comunidades enteras. Este Proyecto Coordinado propone una investigación básica sobre las interrelaciones entre tectónica, magmatismo y dinámica sedimentaria, y como estos procesos influencian los geo-riesgos, en la zona Mediterránea tectónicamente mas activa: La cuenca del Egeo. El proyecto integra dos Subproyectos que conjuntamente investigarán el sistema geológico entero. El objetivo de un subproyecto es estudiar la estructura a gran escala y las propiedades físicas de la litosfera que subduce, la cuña mantélica, la litosfera cabalgante y la actividad sísmica a través de todo el sistema. Esas observaciones permitirán analizar su papel en la distribución de esfuerzos, fusión mantélica, volcanismo de arco y tectónica. El otro subproyecto esta enfocado a un estudio de mas alta resolución y profundidad mas someras de la tectónica a escala cortical y la dinámica sedimentaria, incluyendo estructura y estilo del fallamiento, actividad de largo termino en sistemas de fallas, tasa de deslizamiento, paleo-sismología marina, y dinámica sedimentaria inducida sísmicamente. El objetivo coordinado del proyecto es integrar las observaciones de los dos Subproyectos para obtener una compresión holística de cómo esos fenómenos, que operan a escalas de tiempo y espacio diferentes, se interrelacionan para modular los geo-riesgos en la región. La cuenca del Egeo ha sido seleccionada como laboratorio natural porque es geodinámicamente muy activa, con volcanismo de arco activo y la sismicidad mas alta del dominio Mediterráneo. Allí, los geo-riesgos ocurren a un ratio mas alto, y posiblemente se pueden estudiar mejor durante la duración limitada de este proyecto. La región tiene callamiento cortical activo y volcanismo y ha sido golpeada por terremotos y tsunamis que están documentado en el registro histórico. El terremoto mas grande en Grecia durante los últimos 100 años ocurrió en una falla normal del Egeo oriental que no ha podido ser claramente identificada y que produjo un tsunami de 20 metros de altura. Los IPs de los dos Subproyectos organizaron una sesión en el Fall Meeting de la American Geophysical Union (la mayor reunión anual de geociencias en el mundo) en diciembre del 2010 con el titulo “The Formation and Deformation of the Mediterranean Basins, Continental Margins, and Arcs“ http://www.agu.org/cgi-bin/sessions5?meeting=fm10&part=T13G&maxhits=400 donde se enviaron 67 abstractos mostrando el interés internacional en el tema. La sesión demostró que el Egeo es una zona que esta siendo estudiada por muchos grupos pero que en la actualidad prácticamente carece de datos marinos geofísicos y geológicos modernos que permitan poner a prueba las diferentes hipótesis existentes y que nos permitan avanzar en el conocimiento. Para resolver los objetivos del proyecto, se propone la adquisición de datos geofísicos y geológicos. Para estudiar los procesos geológicos activos y geo-riesgos relacionados, se tomarán una serie de datos mutidisciplinares incluyendo sísmica de reflexión multicanal, sísmica de gran ángulo, perfilador de fondos, batimetría de multi-haz, testigos de sedimento, datos electromagnéticos terrestres y marinos, y se instalará una red para el registro de terremotos. Cabe la pena destacar que algunos de los métodos que utilizarán como la magnetotelúrica marina no han sido usados en proyectos liderados desde España con anterioridad. Asimismo, el tratamiento de los datos y los métodos geofísicos que se utilizarán son muy punteros. Por ejemplo, alguna de nuestras herramientas de trabajo, como la pre-stack depth migration, aunque ampliamente usada hoy en día por la industria, debido a la complejidad de su uso esta disponible solo en un puñado de centros académicos en el mundo. Otro ejemplo es el trabajo que se esta llevando a cabo para modificar uno de los paquetes de software de modelado de datos sísmicos de gran ángulo mediante una colaboración con su creador Jun Korenaga (Yale University), así como los trabajos de desarrollo metodológico de algoritmos de inversión de datos sísmicos financiados por Repsol con importantes contratos de investigación de varios millones de presupuesto. En resumen, los datos serán tratados con el mayor rigor y los mas modernos algoritmos para producir observaciones cuantitativas de la mayor calidad. Este proyecto esta también inspirado en la posición privilegiada a la que puede acceder la ciencia en España hoy en día mediante el uso adecuado de una plataforma científica como el Sarmiento de Gamboa. En otras palabras, el Sarmiento de Gamboa podrá ser un embajador de gran altura en el Mediterráneo oriental, del nivel de excelencia de la comunidad de ciencias de la tierra española. El buque dispone de una serie de equipos geofísicos y geológicos que por primera vez nos pueden permitir obtener datos observacionales que nos situen en la punta de lanza de la ciencias de la tierra a nivel internacional y que, si aprovechados adecuadamente, dejarán una huella duradera en la comunidad científica que trabaja en el dominio del Mediterráneo y otras regiones del munto geodínamicamente relacionadas. Quiza como muestra de su potencial, este proyecto ha atraido a varios grupos de científicos de prestigio internacional que participarán en la investigación en algunos casos con aportaciones notables tanto en dedicación personal como en financiación. Por una parte, dos grupos alemanes de centro de investigación IfM-Geomar aportarán al experimento sofisticados sensores marinos y su propia financiación. Un grupo aportará unos 25 sísmometros de fondo oceánico y el otro una 15 estaciones electromagneticas de fondo oceánico. Estos grupos aportarán una financiación de unos 170 mil euro para cubrir su participación en la toma de datos y hasta unos 20 días de tiempo del buque oceanográfico Poseidon con un coste aproximado de 280 mil euro. Por otra parte, diferentes instituciones de Grecia han mostrado también su interés a participar activamente en la investigación. El director del Institute of Geodynamics del National Observatory of Athens, un experto internacional en temas de sismología, ha mostrado por escrito su disponibilidad para ayudar al proyecto y facilitar el acceso a bases de datos nacionales. Asimismo desde el Laboratory of Geophysics & Seismology del Technological Educational Institute of Crete, se ha mostrado también por escrito su disponibilidad a colaborar y ayudar en temas de logística tanto de tierra como de mar. Los resultados del proyecto serán integrados con perspectiva amplia teniendo en cuenta otros proyectos en marcha en otras cuencas del Mediterráneo por los miembros del proyecto y por sus colaboradores internacionales. En este respecto, el proyecto también es de gran interés para mejorar nuestro conocimiento del las cuencas Mediterráneas españolas (Surco de Valencia, Alborán, Sud-balear) que comparten un origen geodinámico similar con la región del Egeo que se pretende estudiar. Los resultados del proyecto serán no solo científicamente significativos sino también socialmente relevantes. Además, servirán como una base de datos para EMSO, la iniciativa de la UE para implementar observatorios permanentes submarinos dentro de las aguas de la EU para estudiar, entre otros temas, los geo-riesgos submarinos. Este Proyecto Coordinado establecerá el encuadre tectónico de un área que EMSO tiene seleccionada como prioritaria para el monitoreo. El mar Helénico y particularmente el Egeo en el área que se pretende estudiar en este proyecto, están propuestas para la instalación de tres observatorios submarinos (www.emso-eu.org/).

Proyecto: ECOTRANS
Dinámica y rol ECOlógico de los peces pelágicos pequeños en el noroeste Mediterráneo: TRANSferencia de energia desde organismos planctónicos a depredadores superiores (CTM2011-26333)
Periodo: 2012 – 2014
Ecosystem ecology is nowadays one of the most important scientific tools that have direct applications for management and conservation of marine ecosystems. Within this context, the project ECOTRANS aims at studying the trophic relations between different compartments of the pelagic ecosystem in the Western Mediterranean Sea, with a special attention to the dynamics and ecological role of small pelagic fish (SPF), and the transfer of energy canalized by these species. SPF species, mainly anchovy and sardine, are key organisms of Mediterranean marine ecosystems due to their ecological and economic role. However, there are still fundamental aspects of their biology and ecology that remain practically unknown. Within ECOTRANS we will combine different methodological approaches such as the stable isotope analysis (δ15N & δ13C), the analysis of lipids and fatty acids, and the study of stomach contents and reproductive aspects, with bioenergetics and ecological parameters and models based on trophic flows. In particular, (i) we will investigate in detail the trophic relationships between the main species of the pelagic compartment, focusing on European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), European sardine (Sardina pilchardus), and round sardinella (Sardinella aurita) (being dominant species in terms of biomass and production), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus and T. mediterraneus), and mackerel (Scomber spp.) (being species at similar trophic levels than the last ones, but showing competition and predation on them at some ontogeny phases). For the main pelagic fish species identified above, we will study their trophic relationships (using stomach contents, stable isotopes and fatty acids) with special attention to juvenile and adult stages. We will then study (ii) their relation with predators of the pelagic and demersal compartments. The demersal compartment will include the European hake (Merluccius merluccius), anglerfish (Lophius spp.) and starry ray (Raja stellaris), and pelagic organisms such as bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and seabirds (Larus audouinii and L. michahellis). Afterwards, we will also analyze (iii) the indicators of physiological condition and energetic content (condition indicators, caloric content) in SPF. These indicators, together with estimates of caloric content of various tissues (reserves, structural and reproductive) will allow us to analyze the seasonal energetic cycle of each species, its reproductive strategy and the percentage of energy/biomass from intermediate trophic levels available to upper trophic levels. The main objective of this task will be to integrate the main patterns of energy distribution between reproduction and growth of SPF into a dynamic bioenergetic prototype model. Finally (iv) we will integrate all the new data in an available ecological model build with the Ecopath-with-Ecosym (EwE) approach, which represents an ecosystem of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea. We will update this model, especially regarding new knowledge of the pelagic compartment and reproductive and trophic aspects, and when the model is updated we will develop simulations of changes in the dynamics of pelagic and demersal species in relation to management decisions and climatic and anthropogenic effects.

Proyecto: CORIBAR-ES
PERFORACIÓN CIENTÍFICA MARINA EN ZONAS ÁRTICAS Respuesta del casquete polar de Barents al cambio climático global (CTM2011-14807)
Periodo: 2012 – 2014
La acción complementaria que se solicita tiene como objetivo contribuir el 10 % de los costes totales asociados a la ejecución de una campaña de perforación en el fondo marino del Mar de Barents utilizando como plataforma el buque de investigación alemán Maria S. Merian y por primera vez en el Ártico, el nuevo sistema de perforación submarino automático MeBo (MARUM, Bremen). La campaña de perforación CORIBAR es producto de la iniciativa IPY NICE STREAMS y se enmarca en el proyecto del Plan Nacional DEGLABAR. La campaña tiene por objetivo reconstruir la cronología de las fases de deshielo del casquete glacial de Svalbard / Mar de Barents.

Proyecto: BUS2
Propagación no lineal de olas y corrientes desde aguas profundas a aguas someras, con implicaciones en el transporte de sedimentos (CGL2011-22964)
Periodo: 2012 – 2014
El objetivo de este proyecto es desarrollar y probar un modelo de propagación de oleaje de aguas a aguas someras. El modelo, de pequeñas escala (i.e., resolvedor de la forma de la ola), quiere ser muy eficiente computacionalmente. Las propiedades no lineales del modelo en aguas intermedias mejorarán las habituales en modelos similares, y por tanto las interacciones entre ola y corriente serán mejor capturadas. El modelo incluirá asimismo la capa límite que se desarrolla en el fondo, con el fin de calcular las tensiones transmitidas sobre el lecho y, en consecuencia, el transporte de sedimentos. Un modelo morfológico acoplado al hidrodinámicao debe permitir la explicación, cuanto menos desde una nueva perspectiva, de aspectos morfológicos tan importantes como son el movimiento de barras.

Proyecto: ADEPT
Aerosol Deposition and Ocean Plankton Dynamics (CTM2011-23458)
Periodo: 2012 – 2014
http://www.icm.csic.es/bio/adept
DEPT addresses the study of the effect of atmospheric aerosol deposition on the dynamics of a marine LNLC (low nutrient low chlorophyll) system, namely the Mediterranean. To achieve its goal, ADEPT uses a multiscale and complementary approach. At the Mediterranean basin scale we will relate satellite chlorophyll data with modeled Saharan dust deposition. At the coastal scale, we will measure deposition directly at several locations across the NW Mediterranean and simultaneously sample chemical and biological parameters of the water column at high frequency and analyze relationships between both sets of variables. For such a sampling intensity we will count with the collaboration of non-scientists. In addition we will conduct laboratory experiments with aerosol amendments to seawater in order to study plankton stimulation dynamics, utilization of organic matter by bacteria, and changes in bacterial composition and diversity, all for a better mechanistic understanding of the processes involved. The bulk input of nutrients to the Mediterranean through atmospheric deposition is equivalent to the land-based input, thus having utmost importance in biogeochemical budgets. However, contrary to HNLC (high nutrient low chlorophyll) oceanic areas where iron produces a clear stimulation of system production, in the Mediterranean various nutritional elements may show very low concentrations and limit production in temporal succession, which makes it difficult to detect event driven stimulation. Using time series with many events and experimental manipulations, ADEPT aims to evaluate the conditions for the stimulation of plankton owing to deposition in the Mediterranean and the degree of such stimulation.

Proyecto: SCOR-ES 2011
Actividad SCOR (Comité Científico de Investigación Oceanográfica) en España (ACI-COM-2011-1037)
Periodo: 2011 – 2014

Proyecto: MONTERA
Los montes submarinos del sur de Iberia: tectónica y sedimentación (CTM-14157/C02-02)
Periodo: 2010 – 2014
Coord.: Vázquez Garrido, Juan-Tomás (Instituto Español de Oceanografia)
This coordinated project is proposed to carry out a systematic and comprehensive study of seamounts from different points of view of Marine Geology. These seamounts are characterized by having different origins, volcanic, diapiric and / or structural. The seamounts have been selected on the continental margins of southern Iberia, both in the Alboran Sea and the Gulf of Cadiz, regions in proximity to the plate boundary between Eurasia and Nubia, and therefore the neotectonic activity has had an important role in the current configuration of these mountains. The coordinated project is aware of the processes and mechanisms that generate seamounts with different origin, and that affect their stability and govern the evolution on continental margins. To this end, the project covers three main objectives: 1) the tectonic and morphological characterization of seamounts to be developed by the subproject 1; 2) the stratigraphic and sedimentological characterization of the sedimentary cover of seamounts and adjacent areas during the Neogene Quaternary-to be addressed by the subproject 2; and 3) the establishment of Neogene and Quaternary geological evolutivemodels to be jointly developed by the research team throughout the project coordinated. Achieving these targets will be established through the study, analyses and discussion of the following topics: the determination of the influence of seamounts in the evolution of continental margins and its influence on sediment dynamics, the development of sedimentary systems and the stratigraphic architecture, the role of tectonic processes and / or diapiric reactivation in the formation of the seamount relief , the processes related to erosion and / or weathering/wasting of these mountains, and modeling of future trends, especially the assessment of geological hazards related to landslides or tsunamis based on the development of numerical models. On the other hand, consider two distinct zones of the margins of southern Iberia will provide a vision of such morphological features in connection with intense tectonic activity in the Neogene-Quaternary. Montera project are proposing to use a wide range of geophysical, seismic, acoustic and sedimentological methods to achieve the above mentioned objectives targets. We will work with acquisition, processing and interpretation techniques for the study of seismic profiles of high and very high resolution, multibeam bathymetry, gravimetry, magnetometry, heat flow, samples (rocks) from dredges, sediment cores, and mathematical models. All data and results will be integrated within a geographical information system (GIS) The applicability of the results focuses on the increased geological knowledge of the studied continental margins, and in modeling the evolution of these seamounts, allowing conclusions to be applied directly to action for the prevention of geological hazards and the design of contingency plans. In addition, seamounts are typically areas of high biological productivity, hosting interesting areas of living resources, and / or habitats of particular vulnerability, so the project\’s findings will be basic piece in any valuation of ecosystems is the of fishing or for recognition and definition of marine protected areas.

Proyecto: ECLIPSE
EFECTOS DEL CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO EN ECOSISTEMAS BENTÓNICOS POLARES SOMEROS (UCA2011040008)
Periodo: 2011 – 2014
http://www.eclipseproject.org/
ECLIPSE has been developed for a international group of researchers, including benthic and plankton biologists and geologists. This project intends to investigate the current extent of biodiversity in coastal benthic Antarctic communities and to evaluate the effect of glacier retreat, as consequence of climate change, in these communities. To achieve this main goal, following specific objectives are proposed:
1. Study of biodiversity of the megabenthic communities inhabiting the coastal ecosystems 2. Distribution and density studies of populations for selected species 3. Physical characterization of the selected coastal benthic ecosystems 4. Evaluate the effect of environmental conditions of Potter Cove on the benthic organisms
The field work of ECLIPSE is being carried out In Potter Cove (King George Island, Antarctica) were changes in the taxonomic composition of benthic communities has been detected, and those changes are been linked to increasing sediment rates originated by glacier retreat. Other consequence of glacier retreatment already mentioned above, are newly ice-free areas, that make available new substrate for benthic organisms. Further, at Potter Cove the retreatment of the Fourcade glacier, that surrounds the cove, uncovered in 2003 a new island (which offer rocky substrate), as well new soft bottom sea floor extensions. Those “new” available substrates are being colonized by benthic organisms. Potter Cove, where the scientific station “Jubany” is located, and other surrounding areas in Maxwell Bay offer an excellent opportunity to study, analyze and interpret not only the effects of glacier retreatment on established communities, but also the dynamics of colonization and succession processes in the ice-free new areas. At Potter Cove long-term data on several environmental variables are available and the effects of glacier retreatment (as a consequence of climate change) are being assessed.
ECLIPSE acts as scientific platform contributing to improve the current knowledge of coastal Antarctic Ecosystems and Global Warming effects.

Proyecto: CREAM
Coordinating research support to application of AEF (Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries) and management advice in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. (265648)
Periodo: 2011 – 2014
http://www.cream-fp7.eu/
CREAM will establish an effective collaboration network among key role players in Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries research and management. The participants in the project include national research institutes from Mediterranean and Black Sea countries with a long history and active participation in fisheries research and assessment, who provide advice to national, regional and international fisheries management organisms. The project will seek the active collaboration of regional and international fisheries management organisms as external participants in the project, in order to identify the gaps (in terms of data, knowledge, training, coordination) which hamper at present the full application of the Ecosystem Approach in the management of Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries. The project will have a strong training and capacity building component in order to help harmonize data collection and methodologies used in fisheries assessment and management in the Mediterranean and Black Sea. The project will serve to establish the guidelines for the application of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries in the Mediterranean and Black Sea, both in EU member states and third countries.

Proyecto: ASCAT_SA
ASCAT Quality Control (OSI_AVS12_04 )
Periodo: 2013 – 2014
The aim of this project is to improve the current operational quality control of the ASCAT level 2 wind product, notably under rainy conditions. A new image processing technique will be tested to complement the current QC algorithm developments in the OSI SAF CDOP2, i.e., the inversion residual or MLE-based QC. The new technique, the so-called Singularity Analysis, refers to any technique capable of evaluating the local singularity exponents of a given function around each one of its points. The concept of singularity exponent extends that of differentiability to a continuous range of cases, across which the regular character of the function can steadily vary. Singularity exponents also allow characterizing non-regular behaviours such as discontinuities and even actual divergences of the function to infinity. When analyzing ASCAT operational wind maps, singularity fronts are induced (Turiel et al., 2012). This is mainly due to the fact that singularity analysis is applied to bi-dimensional maps of a given variable which is submitted to a process taking place in three dimensions. As such, convergence and divergence areas associated with circulation cell boundaries will show up as singularity fronts in ASCAT-derived maps, because they represent actual separation between two flow regimes as observed by the satellite. However, other effects not related to wind circulation induce spurious singularity fronts. For instance, recent studies show that errors in the ASCAT retrieved wind speed and/or direction lead to marked singularity fronts. Moreover, the presence of heavy rain induces clear spurious singularity fronts in ASCAT wind maps. Although separating rain-induced singularity fronts from wind-induced ones is challenging, preliminary results show the technique’s potential to assess the quality of the scatterometer retrieved wind fields. To contribute to the current ASCAT operational QC, further SA developments are required. We propose to focus on analysing the relation between singularity fronts, for the ASCAT wind vector and each wind component (i.e., U, V, speed and direction) separately, and all geophysical phenomena which affect the radar backscatter signal, including rain, local wind variability, confused sea state, etc. Besides the retrieved wind, other ASCAT-derived parameters, such as the backscatter measurements and the inversion residuals (MLE), will be used to generate singularity maps. These may reveal further characteristics of the ASCAT data in convective areas, which can lead to improving both ASCAT wind retrievals and QC. Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model output, satellite derived rain data (e.g., the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission’s (TRMM) Microwave Imager or TMI, and the Meteosat Second Generation or MSG), as well as in-situ (moored buoys) rain and wind data will be used to assess the rain impact on ASCAT winds and the SA effectiveness. Both the MLE QC-based and the singularity analysis methods are expected to be more effective when applied on higher-resolution ASCAT products, i.e., 12.5-km and coastal products (see OSI SAF product at http://www.knmi.nl/scatterometer/ ). On the one hand, ASCAT is expected to better resolve higher resolution wind phenomena (e.g., convergence and downbursts); on the other hand, the rain splashing signal, being patchy and intermittent, is expected to become more evident at smaller ASCAT footprints. As such, we will extend this study to the ASCAT full resolution products.

Proyecto: WBSZ
WESTERN BLACK SEA ZONE (WBSZ): Exploration Site Survey and Regional Reconnaissance offshore Romania and Turkey using HR Geophysics (COC-DI-2013-02)
Periodo: 2013 – 2013
The Western Black Sea Zone (WBSZ) comprises the complete Bulgarian and Romania offshore slices, the western part of the Odessa Gulf from Ukrainian offshore, the westernmost part of the Turkish offshore sector, as well as the neighbouring onshore zones (Figure 1). Figure 1 Sketch of the main tectonic unit of the Black Sea. This study is focused in the WBSZ Four different oil genetic types have been identified in the last years. The three main hydrocarbons systems with economic potential are defined, they relate to WBSB and its Histria and Kamchia branches, the East-Varna trough and the Bourgas basin. Hydrocarbon exploration in the WBSZ began in the 70s mostly in the area of the platform (Fig. 2), resulting in 15 oil and gas resulting in 15 oil and gas reservoirs discovered to date (Georgiev, 2012). The purpose is to make a reconnaissance survey using novel High resolution techniques combining different acoustic sources, together with multibeam HR mapping and Side Scan Sonar (SSS) and magnetics.

Proyecto: SONSO
Estudio científico para el plan de gestión de la sonsera (201223321 – 201330394)
Periodo: 2012 – 2013
A management Plan for the Catalonian \”sonsera\” (boat seine) is carried out in order to allow the use of this fishing gear. The Co-management Committee of the “sonsera” was formally created with the specific mission to ensure a sustainable activity of the fishery. ICM-CSIC is carried out the scientific study to accurately evaluate the state of the stock and its impact on the ecosystem. The analysis of the fishery data is expected to provide a first assessment of the status of exploitation of the target species of the boat seine fishery (sad eel and the dominant gobid species). The methodologies will include at least pseudocohort analysis and depletion model for the cpue data. The spatial distribution of fishing effort during the sand eel and gobids fishing seasons will also be analyzed. Evaluation of the impact of the fishing gear at ecosystem level. Technical measures will be defined based on the diagnosis, for the sand eel and gobids fisheries. The economic impact of the measures on these fisheries will be evaluated.

Proyecto: RITFIM
RITmos Fisiológicos e Influencia del hábitat en crustáceos de ambientes Marinos profundos (CTM2010-16274)
Periodo: 2011 – 2013
Stock or biodiversity assessments are usually carried out in continental margin areas (shelves and slopes) without a proper reference to the time of the day. However, the activity rhythms of species within targeted communities occur during rhythmic displacements in a three-dimensional marine environment. Such activity directly affects all scientific observations, since there is a strict relationship between behavior and catchability (defined as the possibility to retrieve animals during trawl sampling).
For these reasons, it is important to study the rhythmic patterns of behavioral, physiological and molecular regulation of biorhythms in relation to the fluctuations of select habitat variables (geophysical cycles in light intensity and hydrodynamism). Also, it is important to develop non-invasive observational technology as an alternative to bottom-destructive trawling, to study marine communities in a remote and real-time manner. For this purpose, the use of video cameras in permanent demersal multi-sensory stations may be an effective tool for the observation of marine ecosystems without the need for trawling.
In this context, the present study aims to examine non-photic tidal and inertial behavioral (burrow emergence), physiological (melatonin and serotonin), and molecular (the expression of the arthropod gene Clock) rhythms in the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (L.), which is a prototypical deep water and deep-sea species. These biological rhythms will be studied under different light intensity conditions that simulate shelf and slope depths. In addition, we will also consider other more variable ecological conditions, such as social interactions and aliment or live prey presence. Our research will be accompanied by field studies that will be conducted under the hypothesis that technology for the observation of deep water and deep-sea communities can be developed as an alternative to trawling. For this purpose, we will remotely monitor biorhythms in wild marine populations using the existing Spanish multi-sensory platform (OBSEA), which will be equipped with embedded technology derived from adapted open-source software to automatically process digital images in real-time. Species classification, animal tracking, and counting will be performed to create a long-term (months) time series of observations that can account for the diel and seasonal variations in behavioral rhythms of species that reside in the local community.

Proyecto: PROTOS
Relevancia de los protozoos en la dinámica de redes tróficas planctónicas marinas, en especial durante condiciones de elevada producción (CTM2009-08783)
Periodo: 2010 – 2013
http://www.icm.csic.es/bio/projects/protos/home.htm
Recent studies reveal microzooplankton as the main responsible for the final fate of the carbon assimilated by primary producers as well as for its transfer to higher trophic levels (i.e., exploitable fish species) even in highly productive ecosystems. Despite their importance, methodological constraints limit our capacity to discern the specific effect of the different groups of microzooplankton, so their role must be studied through a \”black-box\” approach. In this project we aim at discerning the relative importance of the major microzooplanktonic groups (ciliates and dinoflagellates), focusing especially in their role during diatom blooms. The major objectives of this proposal can be summarized as follows: 1. To estimate the impact of protozoan micrograzers on the primary producers of coastal NW Mediterranean waters, especially during periods of blooms of diatoms. 2. To determine basic ecophysiological and metabolical parameters for important species of marine micrograzers. 3. To determine the nutritional adequacy of different protozoans as prey for copepods, and their efficiency in the upgrading of food quality. 4. To study the effects of small-scale turbulence on the feeding behaviour of different species of protozoans.

Proyecto: POSEIDON
Applications of Seismic Oceanography: Seismic data inversion and processing and spectral analysis strategies (CTM2010-21569)
Periodo: 2011 – 2013
Coord.: Sallares Casas, Valenti (UTM)
Multichannel seismic reflection methods (MCS) have the potential to address some of the current major issues in oceanographic research. It allows continuous mapping of the fine-structure that develops at thermohaline boundaries in the oceans, along sections of over 100 km in length from sea-surface to seabed with a vertical resolution as fine as 2 m and a horizontal resolution of up to 3 m. The combined vertical and horizontal resolution represents a step change over more traditional physical oceanography methods. The acoustic reflectivity of the oceans is a function of the impedance contrasts between neighbouring water masses, which means that seismic records contain information not only on the position and geometry of the thermohaline boundaries, but also on their physical properties. All this information together provides new insights into small scale processes associated with internal wave propagation and turbulent mixing. A better characterization of these processes is a key to understand systems of global-scale ocean circulation and, in turn, the transport of heat, nutrients, and other climatically and ecologically important tracers. The MCS images therefore show the structure of the ocean in a way that had never been possible before, sparking increasing interest within the international physical oceanographic community. Even though in the last five years major advances have been made in the field that demonstrate the potential of MCS to obtain detailed information of the water column structure, as well as its properties and dynamics, there is still considerable need to develop methodologies that allow retrieving as much information of oceanographic interest as possible from the seismic data. Within this framework, the main objectives of the POSEIDON project are the following: 1) Developing inversion strategies adapted to seismic oceanography data to retrieve the physical properties of the water column; and adapting procedures to estimate the uncertainty of the inverted models; 2) Implementing tools for spectral analysis, with special emphasis on stochastic methods, to study internal wave propagation and turbulent mixing; and 3) Re-analysing legacy data and “piggy-backing” on new data acquisitions to study particular oceanographic objects and processes, and exploring new applications of industrial interest. 4) Finally, we propose to develop a dissemination plan including an online seismic oceanography data atlas to explain the basics of the method and to show the results of the project, as well as to organize an international workshop.

Proyecto: POSEIDON
Aplicaciones de Oceanografía Sísimica: Estrategias de inversión y procesado de datos y análisis espectral (CTM2010-21569)
Periodo: 2011 – 2013
Los métodos de sísmica de reflexión multicanal (SMC) tienen gran potencial para tratar algunos de los principales problemas en investigación oceanográfica. La SMC permite delinear de forma contínua la estructura fina que se desarrolla en los límites termohalinos de los océanos, a lo largo de secciones de más de 100 km de longitud desde la superficie del mar hasta el lecho marino, con una resoulción vertical de hasta 2 m y una resolución horizontal de hasta 3 m. La resoulción combinada vertical y horizontal representa un gran salto respecto a los métodos de oceanografía física más tradicionales. La reflectividad acústica de los océanos es función de los contrastes de impedancia entre masas de agua contiguas, con lo cual los registros sísmicos contienen información no sólo de la posición y geometría de los límites termohalinos, sino también de sus propiedades físicas. Toda esta información en conjunto proporciona una nueva visión sobre procesos de pequeña escala asociados con la propagación de ondas internas y la mezcla turbulenta. Comprender estos procesos es clave para entender los sistemas de circulación oceánica a escala global y el transporte de calor asociado, así como de nutrientes y otros trazadores importantes a nivel climático y ecológico. Las imágenes de SMC muestran por tanto la estructura del océano de una forma radicalmente nueva, despertando un creciente interés entre la comunidad oceanográfica internacional. Aunque en los últimos cinco años se han logrado grandes avances en este campo que demuestran el potencial de la SMC para obtener información detallada de la estructura, propiedades y dinámica de la columna de agua, hay todavía una necesidad importante de desarrollar metodologías que permitan recuperar la máxima información posible de interés oceanográfico a partir de los datos sísmicos. En este marco, los principales objetivos del proyecto POSEIDON son los siguientes: 1) Desarrollar estrategias de inversión adaptadas a datos de oceanografía sísmica para obtener las propiedades físicas de la columna de agua e implementar procedimientos para estimar la incertidumbre de los modelos invertidos; 2) Adaptar herramientas de análisis espectral con especial énfasis en métodos estocásticos, para estudiar la propagación de ondas internas y la mezcla turbulenta; 3) Aprovechar datos históricos y nuevos para estudiar procesos y objetos de interés oceanográfico y explorar nuevas aplicaciones de interés industrial. 4) Finalmente, proponemos desarrollar un plan de difusión de resultados incluyendo un atlas de datos de oceanografía sísmica y una página web para explicar la base del método y mostrar los resultados del proyecto y la organización de un workshop internacional.

Proyecto: NETPROK
Ecology, coevolution and architecture of symbiotic prokaryote-animal host interaction networks (CGL2010-20091)
Periodo: 2011 – 2013
http://www.econetgc.net/index.php
Darwin used the metaphor of the tangled bank to illustrate the idea and importance of a complex network of interactions among species to understand ecology and evolution. Recent studies have shown universal patterns exist in the way species interact across different habitats and types of interaction (e.g. mutualistic, trophic). These studies have challenged prevailing wisdom about coevolution based on pairwise interactions. In addition, the disruption of biotic interactions affects key ecosystem functions, like primary production, nutrient fluxes and biogeochemical cycles. Despite these important advances, a fundamental component of the picture is systematically ignored: symbiotic interactions between microbes and larger organisms. New molecular techniques of high-throughoutput sequencing are revolutionizing the study of ecology and evolution. This proposal aims at bringing this technological potential to understand the organization, coevolution and functioning of prokaryote-animal multispecies interaction networks. The overall objective of this project is to construct, analyze, and compare the interaction networks of symbiotic prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea) and their sponge and coral hosts in different marine ecosystems, in order to search for coevolutionary processes in rokaryote-animal multispecies networks. The specific objectives of the project are: (i) To assess the geographical differences in the structural patterns of prokaryote-animal host networks belonging to two different habitat types (Mediterranean coralligeneous and Caribbean coral reefs), in comparison with free-living prokaryotic communities in the water column at each location. For doing so, we will build the binary interaction networks, abundance distributions, and phylogenetic relationships between species. (ii) To determine the importance of past evolutionary history in current prokaryote-animal host networks through phylogenetically analysis: to what extent network architecture is associated with species phylogenetic relationships? (iii) To assess whether Archaea assemblages are less host-specific than Bacterial assemblages and whether the former are more similar to their correspondant free-living assemblages in the surrounding seawater than the later. (iv) To search for differences and commonalities between symbiotic prokaryotes-animal host networks and other known mutualistic webs in order to build a coevolutionary theory of symbiotic networks. (v) To develop new individual-based models of prokaryote-host animal network evolution in order to test coevolutionary and ecological mechanisms responsible for observed network patterns. The approach adopted is integrative: a combination of field surveys, analysis of new data, and mathematical modelling. This project will be a ground breaking advance in bridging the gap between ecology and evolution in multispecies networks with detailed information on their symbiotic microbes.

Proyecto: MARINEGEMS
Ecología de los microorganismos marinos a través de la genómica ambiental y funcional (CTM2010-20361)
Periodo: 2011 – 2013
El objetivo general de este proyecto mejorar la comprensión de los microorganismos marinos a partir de la información que nos proporciona su genoma. Nos proponemos explorar y extraer tanta información como sea posible de un conjunto muy grande de secuencias de DNA y RNA microbiano, a partir de muestras que estarán a nuestra disposición durante los próximos meses, procedentes del Observatorio Microbiano de la Bahía de Blanes (dónde muestreamos una vez al mes desde más de 10 años), y del otros lugares de muestreo del mar Mediterráneo y otros océanos a través de las campañas oceanográficas en las que participamos. Concretamente el proyecto pretende: 1) aislar microorganismos mediante separación de células individuales por citometría y secuenciar sus genomas. Este procedimiento proporcionará organismos modelo para estudios de ecofisiología. 2) estudiar la diversidad del bacterioplancton mediante dos aproximaciones distintas: la pirosecuenciación 454, que se usará para analizar las bacterias muy poco abundantes y las genotecas de fragmentos largos de DNA y ARISA, para las abundantes. 3) utilizar la colección de secuencias de metagenómica y metatranscriptómica procedentes de Blanes y del Mediterráneo gracias a un muestreo conjunto con el Instituto J. Craig Venter para buscar genes funcionales específicos y analizar distintas adaptaciones de las bacterias marinas. 4) Utilizar la técnica del análisis de las huellas dactilares del transcriptoma para buscar patrones espaciales y temporales de la expresión génica en el campo. Durante el proyecto se dedicará una atención especial al grupo de los Bacteroidetes, el tercero en abundancia en los océanos (después de las Cianobacterias y Proteobacterias).

Proyecto: INDEMARES
Inventario y designación de la Red Natura 2000 en el Estado Español (LIFE07/NAT/E/000732)
Periodo: 2009 – 2013
http://www.indemares.es/
Spain is one of the richest European countries in marine biodiversity. It has 8.000 Km. of coastline with 23 million inhabitants, which is 58% of the Spanish population. Due to the increasing pressure of human activities in the marine environment, health of the oceans and the natural resources that live in them is decreasing. Protection of our seas is mandatory. Almost a quarter of the Spanish territory is included in the Natura 2000 Network. Conservation of its ecologic state has the guaranty of this protection mechanism. However, in the marine environment, the Natura 2000 Network is in a very early stage. The high cost and complexity to undertake an inventory in offshore and deep sea areas makes obtaining the scientific information about the habitats and species used to identify the areas to include in this Network difficult. In order to obtain this information and begin the conservation and management actions, it is necessary to make a big effort to identify the marine ecosystems. It is here where the project LIFE+ “Inventory and designation of marine Natura 2000 areas in the Spanish sea” was born. The main objective of the LIFE+ INDEMARES project is to contribute to the protection and sustainable use of the biodiversity in the Spanish seas through the identification of valuable areas for the Natura 2000 Network. Specific objectives for the activities 1.To complete the identification of the marine Natura 2000 Network in Spain. 2.To promote the participation of all the involved parties in marine research, conservation and sea management and its resources, including the sea users. 3.To provide management and monitoring guidelines for each of the study areas. 4.To raise awareness in the population about conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity. 5.To contribute to the reinforcement of international sea agreements that are currently in force in Spain (OSPAR and Barcelona). Other planned actions to be developed during the project 1. To implement scientific studies, through oceanographic campaigns, in the 10 proposed areas for marine habitats and species (mainly cetaceans, reptiles and birds).2. Monitoring human activities and their tendencies. 3. Evaluate the consequences of the CIS declaration and the impact of the SPAB proposals. 4. Monitoring and evaluation of deliberate oil spills. 5. Information, participation and awareness campaigns.

Proyecto: FLAME
Periodo: 2011 – 2013
n microbial ecology, the biomass, activity and ecological role of a given microbial assemblage is often addressed as a bulk property, obviating the fact that these assemblages are formed by distinct species with diverse evolutionary histories, cellular traits and metabolic capacities. The main reason for this is that microorganisms are morphologically similar and often impossible to identify without molecular tools, which use in microbial ecology is relatively recent. One of such microbial assemblages in aquatic systems are the “heterotrophic flagellates”, a consortium of tiny unpigmented eukaryotic cells that play critical roles as microbial grazers (controlling prokaryotic abundance) and nutrient remineralizers. The biomass and grazing impact of heterotrophic flagellates in marine systems is relatively well established, but their phylogenetic and functional diversity is still poorly known. Therefore, the natural following step in the research of this microbial consortium is moving on from their bulk properties to the investigation of the different component populations.
In this project we propose to study the population ecology of three model species of heterotrophic flagellates that represent different scenarios with respect to culturability and dominance in the marine plankton. These model taxa are Cafeteria roenbergensis (culturable and low in situ abundance), MAST-4 (unculturable and high in situ abundance), and Minorisa minuta , recently isolated in our laboratory (culturable and moderate in situ abundance). Our approach consists in a sequence of steps. First, we will study the physiological properties of these model organisms, such as growth and grazing rates, numerical and functional responses, and prey selectivity. Second, we will develop molecular tools (FISH and q-PCR) to study their distribution and abundance in the marine environment, taking advantage of the Malaspina cruise (which provides samples with a wide geographical coverage) and the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory (a well-characterized temporal sampling site). Third, we will select a reduced number of samples to study the population genetic structure of one of the taxa (MAST-4) using molecular markers and high-throughput pyrosequencing. Fourth, we will aim at isolating specific viruses for the two cultured taxa and study viral genomics, estimate viral abundances in the sea and infer the viral impact on natural populations of flagellates. Fifth, we will take the preliminary steps in genome projects of the cultured species.
The results generated will shed light into the processes leading to the adaptation and success of each taxa to the marine environment and will serve to start understanding heterotrophic flagellates in nature. Focusing on the population ecology of a few model species provides a unique possibility of going one step further in disentangling the structure and function of microbial assemblages in nature.
ICMicrobis: Web of the Aquatic Microbial Ecology Group(CGL2010-16304)

Proyecto: FISHJELLY
Efectos de las proliferaciones de medusas en el Mediterráneo noroccidental: estudio de las interacciones biológicas entre peces y medusas y sus implicaciones ecológicas (CTM2010-18874)
Periodo: 2011 – 2013
En los últimos años, las proliferaciones de medusas han aumentado sensiblemente en diversas regiones del mundo. Estos incrementos van, en general, asociados a un descenso de la biomasa de peces, lo que sugiere que las interacciones entre ambos grupos de organismos afectan a la superviencia, crecimiento y distribución de los peces. El objetivo general del presente proyecto de investigación es determinar el efecto de las proliferaciones de medusas en los sistemas costeros. Para ello nos centraremos en el estudio de las interacciones biológicas entre peces y medusas en la costa Catalana (Mediterráneo occidental). Para alcanzar este objetivo general se plantean los siguientes objetivos específicos: i) determinar la distribución de mesoescala y abundancia de huevos y larvas de peces, medusas y ctenóforos y el posible solapamiento espacial de ambos grupos ii) analizar la distribución vertical de huevos y larvas de peces, medusas y ctenóforos y la posible compartimentación del habitat del zooplancton gelatinoso y el ictioplancton iii) estudiar las interacciones tróficas (depredación de huevos y larvas por medusas y ctenóforos y competencia por el alimento entre ambos grupos de organismos) iv) estudiar las asociaciones beneficiosas entre juveniles de peces y medusas v) determinar los efectos de las proliferaciones de medusas en las poblaciones de peces y en las pesquerías mediterráneas

Proyecto: EPIGEN-AQUA
Efectos de factores externos sobre la reproducción y la proporción de sexos de los peces. Estudio de los mecanismos epigenéticos implicados en la respuesta al ambiente (AGL2010-15939)
Periodo: 2011 – 2013
Coord.: Piferrer Circuns, Francesc (ICM)
In a previous project, during the study of the of influence of ambient temperature on fish sex ratios, we discovered an epigenetic mechanism linking temperature with aromatase enzyme activity -esponsible for estrogen synthesis and a key element in sex differentiation. Epigenetic mechanisms refer to those modifications of DNA that, nevertheless, do not imply changes in its nucleotide sequence. These alterations, mainly DNA methylation and histone modification, result in long-lasting changes in gene expression that, in addition, can be inherited. The objective of this project is to investigate the influence of environmental conditions on sex ratios, focusing on three main aspects: 1) characterization of the effects of changes in developmental rates, modified either by variations in temperature or diet, on the gonadal transcriptome during the critical period of sex differentiation, 2) analysis of DNA methylation patterns in the sea bass under different environmental conditions, also comparing wild vs. farmed fish, and 3) study of the underlying mechanisms implicated in DNA methylation. To the best of our knowledge, the planned studies have never been carried out in the context of research for aquaculture and, therefore, represent a novel approach. This project will provide new data on how the environment typical of intensive farming, and in critical stages during early development, can result in long-lasting influences on various aspects of the physiology of fish and, therefore, on their ultimate quality.

Proyecto: DOS MARES-BIOMED
Cañones y taludes profunDOS en los MARES Mediterráneo y Cantábrico: desde la sincronia entre forzamientos externos a los recursos vivos-BIOMED (CTM2010-21810-C03-03)
Periodo: 2011 – 2013
Coord.: Canals-Artigas, Miquel (Universitat de Barcelona)
En el presente Proyecto Coordinado, DOS MARES, convergen tres grupos de investigación de prestigio, el GRC en Geociencias Marinas de la Universidad de Barcelona, el Grupo de Ecología de Sistemas Acuáticos de la Universidad de Oviedo, y el GRC de Recursos Marinos Renovables del Instituto de Ciencias del Mar del CSIC en Barcelona, especializados, respectivamente, en el estudio de las transferencias de materia y energía en el océano y en procesos físicos del fondo marino, en biología pelágica y oceanografía, y en biología bentónica y recursos vivos. Además, cada uno de estos grupos cuenta con destacados investigadores asociados, pertenecientes a instituciones nacionales y extranjeras, que incrementan las capacidades, la visibilidad y el valor añadido del proyecto. El objetivo general del proyecto es doble. En primer lugar, se trata de entender los efectos de las teleconexiones existentes entre el Mar Cantábrico y el Mar Mediterráneo nor-occidental y sus impactos sobre el ecosistema profundo, tanto pelágico como bentónico. Y en segundo lugar, conocer cómo la transferencia de la señal de los forzamientos externos hacia el ecosistema profundo determina la estructura de la comunidad y la dinámica de poblaciones, afectando así a los recursos vivos de mayor interés comercial. Entendemos que no existen precedentes en la investigación en Ciencias Marinas en España con el planteamiento y el alcance geográfico del proyecto DOS MARES. El proyecto se organiza en torno a tres Ejes de Actividad (1: Caracterización de forzamientos externos y condiciones abióticas; 2: Relación entre condiciones abióticas, poblaciones y recursos pelágicos y bentopelágicos; y 3: Relación entre condiciones abióticas, poblaciones y recursos bentónicos) e identifica dos áreas de trabajo: los cañones submarinos de Avilés y de Blanes, en el Cantábrico y en el Mediterráneo, respectivamente, y los taludes continentales adyacentes. Desde el punto de vista físico, se investigará sincrónicamente en ambas áreas el efecto de los forzamientos externos y las transferencias de materia y energía hacia el ecosistema profundo. Desde el punto de vista biológico, en el Cantábrico se priorizará la investigación del ecosistema pelágico y los recursos vivos asociados (incluyendo los bentopelágicos como M. merluccius), mientras que en el Mediterráneo se priorizará la investigación del ecosistema bentónico y los recursos vivos asociados. Se espera que el proyecto genere fuertes sinergias entre los grupos participantes y que resulte altamente beneficioso para el conocimiento integral de los mares que rodean la Península Ibérica.

Proyecto: DEPURAMAR
Evaluación del impacto de vertidos antropogénicos, a través de DEPURAdoras, en el MAR Mediterráneo en un contexto de cambio climático. (CTM2010-16611)
Periodo: 2011 – 2013
El objetivo del proyecto DEPURAMAR es establecer la relación existente entre los vertidos antropogénicos, canalizados a través de los ríos y las depuradoras de aguas residuales, con alteraciones a diversos niveles de organización biológica (bioquímico, histológico, fisiológico) en especies marinas que viven en zonas próximas a la desembocadura de ríos. Para ello se escoge una especie de pez bentónica de amplía distribución y presente en medios costeros y estuarinos, de fácil manejo en el laboratorio y de la que se conoce su biología, fisiología y reproducción, y que además tiene interés en acuicultura, como es el lenguado senegalés, Solea senegalensis. El proyecto comprende tres partes o enfoques: (A) Un estudio de campo en la zona costera Mediterránea sometida a la acción de vertidos humanos en diferente grado. Se contrastarán las respuestas biológicas analizadas con los datos de contaminantes orgánicos e inorgánicos en el sedimento. Las respuestas biológicas consideradas abarcan varios aspectos de la bioquímica y fisiología de la especie escogida como centinela y proporcionan información complementaria. Estas son: (1) biomarcadores de exposición: actividades de enzimas antioxidantes, del sistema de oxidasas de función mixta (CYP1A1, CYP3A4), carboxilesterasas (CbEs), enzimas de conjugación (GST, UDPGT), indicadores de neurotoxicidad (AChE) y metalotioneínas (MT); (2) biomarcadores de efecto: nivel de peroxidación lipídica (LP), daño histológico; (3) alteraciones endocrinas: niveles de hormonas esteroideas y de vitelogenina en plasma, y (4) indicadores de estrés general: proteínas de estrés (HSP70), variables fisiológicas relacionadas con la osmoregulación y con el sistema inmunitario. (B) Caracterización in vitro de las propiedades cinéticas a corto, medio y largo plazo y en relación con la temperatura, de algunos enzimas implicados en la desintoxicación de xenobióticos (CAT, CbE y GST). Además, se considerarán parámetros de estrés fisiológico (niveles de cortisol, glucosa y lactato) y niveles proteínas de estrés (HSPs). Este objetivo se llevará a cabo con ejemplares juveniles de lenguado senegalés aclimatados a diferentes temperaturas en condiciones de laboratorio. (C) Influencia de la temperatura de aclimatación en la respuesta de los mecanismos de desintoxicación y estrés fisiológico ante la exposición in vivo y por inyección a “contaminantes emergentes” relevantes en los ejemplares juveniles previamente aclimatados durante dos meses en el laboratorio. La información proporcionada por los estudios de campo (A) y de laboratorio (B y C) supondrá un avance importante en el conocimiento del impacto que los agentes estresantes ambientales provocan de forma combinada sobre procesos fisiológicos en organimos marinos, y por otra parte, ayudará al desarrollo de herramientas útiles para el bioseguimiento del efecto de los xenobióticos en un contexto de cambio climático.

Proyecto: CTM2009-09352
ESTRUCTURA DE LA MATERIA ORGANICA EN EL OCEANO COSTERO: IMPLICACIONES BIOGEOQUIMICAS Y ECOLOGICAS (CTM2009-09352)
Periodo: 2010 – 2013

Proyecto: AFORO3D
Análisis de formas de otolitos 3D (CTM2010-19701)
Periodo: 2011 – 2013
http://aforo.cmima.csic.es/
The fish otoliths are calcified structures of the Teleostean inner ear, very useful to estimate the fish age. Additonaly, the otoliths have a specific morphology that can be studied to identify species and determine the predators diet from their stomach contents. Since 2002, the ICM-CSIC and the UPC University have collaborated in the development of the image analyses and database framework AFORO (http://aforo.cmima.csic.es/) to give solutions for the otoliths species and populations automatic identification that have generated web based species recognition tools (with accuracy over 70%). The main objective of the project AFORO3D is to develop three dimensional morphological analysis tools targeted to otoliths surfaces. These tools can increase the efficiency in the automatic identification of species, population and ages. AFORO3D will be developed in two subprojects, that include researchers from the technological and biological fields (Technical University of Catalonia, Universitat de Vic, Marine Science Institute of Barcelona – CSIC, and Argomaris foundation). The project have two main objetives. 1. The research on the suitable morphological descriptors obtained from a multiscale / multiresolution analyis of the otoliths used in fish growth and functional morphology, and the development of a computer based taxonomy system. 2. To develop the AFORO database (http://aforo.cmima.csic.es.) to include numerical descriptors and information of the three dimensional otolith surfaces, analysis tools and a classifier. This system will serve to the study of trophic relationships and fisheries management and will generate web based implementations to be used by other researches in Marine Sciences.

Proyecto: ACDC
CO2 ATMOSFERICO: RESPONSABLES DE LOS CAMBIOS PASADOS, CONSECUENCIAS DE LAS EMISIONES ANTROPOGENICAS (CTM2009-08849)
Periodo: 2010 – 2013
Ya no cabe ninguna duda sobre el calentamiento experimentado por la Tierra desde finales del siglo XIX y que gran parte de este calentamiento global está directamente relacionado con el aumento de la concentración de CO2 atmosférico como resultado de las actividades humanas. Junto con el calentamiento global, no obstante, existe un segundo problema medioambiental derivado del presente aumento de CO2 atmosférico con efectos muy relevantes, posiblemente devastadores, para los ecosistemas marinos: la progresiva acidificación de los océanos. El proyecto ACDC se centrará en estos dos aspectos a través de, primero, el estudio de las causas y las consecuencias de la evolución del CO2 en el pasado y su relación con el clima global y, segundo, la evaluación de la variabilidad actual, tanto temporal como espacial, del pH y su evolución en el pasado más reciente que nos permitirá poner en contexto las predicciones futuras. Los principales objetivos del proyecto ACDC son, por un lado, evaluar el papel de los procesos tanto físicos como biológicos en el control de la concentración atmosférica de CO2 y el clima global y, por otro lado, evaluar el impacto de las presentes emisiones de CO2 en la acidez de los mares y océanos. Con estos objetivos en mente, realizaremos reconstrucciones paleoclimáticas a partir de sedimentos marinos de la productividad marina en el pasado, la temperatura superficial y profunda pretérita y la influencia de diferentes masas de agua con distinto contenido en nutrientes. Por otro lado, también produciremos paleoreconstrucciones de pH en el pasado para poder establecer los niveles de pH que los organimos marinos pueden tolerar y mejorar así nuestro conocimiento sobre el papel y los mecanismos de los océanos para absorber CO2. Este tipo de información sobre rangos estacionales e interanuales de pH se verá complementada con series temporales de mediciones instrumentales de pH, que son unas medidas todavía bastante escasas en la mayoría de áreas oceánicas. Este proyecto se beneficiará de la utilización de diversas técnicas analíticas punteras que incluyen, por ejemplo, la novedosa técnica de Ablación por Láser acoplada a espectrometría de masas con fuente de plasma acoplado inductivamente (LAICPMS) para análisis de alta resolución de foraminíferos individuales y la espectrometría de masas de ionización térmica (TIMS) para el análisis de los isótopos de boro en corales como indicadores de cambios en el pH.

Proyecto
INDEMARES: Bancos Atlanticos (LIFE07/NAT/E/000732)
Periodo: 2011 – 2013
El proyecto “INDEMARES Bancos Atlánticos” tiene como objetivo el estudio de las zonas de Montañas submarinas (Seamounts) oceánicas (Banco de Galicia, Bancos Canarios) y del Cañón de Avilés. Se pretende así avanzar en el conocimiento del funcionamiento de estos ecosistemas y tener más argumentos si cabe para plantear medidas de protección de estas zonas vulnerables. En el marco del proyecto INDEMARES, cuyo principal objetivo es contribuir a la protección y uso sostenible de la biodiversidad en los mares españoles mediante la identificación de espacios de valor para la Red Natura 2000, este proyecto se encarga de analizar la diversidad de organismos pertenecientes a la megafauna (captada por fotografía submarina) y el suprabentos/macroplancton (fauna retenida por redes de 1 mm), así como de los factores ambientales (fisicos y biológicos) que la controlan. Objetivos del estudio son la identificación y catalogación de las especies de los grupos arriba citados y la determinación de patrones en su distribución en el espacio (p. ej. entre 600 y 1800 m en el Banco de Galicia) y en el tiempo (2009-2011), así como la identificación de las posibles causas (masas de agua, producción superficial) que determinen los cambios en la diversidad de las distintas comunidades a la escala muestreada.

Proyecto
Xlth SCAR International Biology Symposium (2012 ARCS1 00275)
Periodo: 2012 – 2013
http://www.icm.csic.es/XIthSCARBiologySymposium/index.php
The main theme for the XIth SCAR (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research) symposium is \”Life in Antarctica: Boundaries and Gradients in a Changing Environment\”. This symposium links the functional importance of land and water ecosystems and their biocomplexity, under an ecosystemic perspective in order to understand the Antarctic trophic web, effects of human impacts such as the ozone hole, climate change, the increase in tourism activities, the flexible boundaries and dynamic gradients in Antarctic ecosystem, as well the Antarctic marine biodiversity through its patterns, processes and trends. An important aspect of this symposium is the outreach and education section, which will emphasize the importance of communication between polar researchers and educators in order to improve understanding and connections between scientists and society. Moreover, one of the aims of the symposium is transferring scientific knowledge beyond the scientific community and letting the general public take an active part in post-symposium hands-on activities, open lectures, seminars, courses and exhibitions. Such exposure will be of undoubtedly benefit to polar science. 

This symposium will be also the perfect oportunity to show the final results of the SCAR programme \”Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic\”. Similarly, the new SCAR programmes AntEco and AnT-ERA will be presented to the scientific community and will outline their objectives and perspectives for the coming years. 

Finally, the newly created Spanish Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS Spain) is going to be highly involved in the symposium by organizing round table sessions and preparing outreach contents.

Proyecto: ECOSER
Estudio del Carbono Orgánico en la SERie temporal histórica de l’Estartit (Mediterráneo Noroeste) (CTM2011-15937-E)
Periodo: 2012 – 2013
Esta acción rentabilizaría el esfuerzo que se viene invirtiendo en la serie oceánica de l’Estartit. La serie cuenta con datos de temperatura desde 1973, y constituye la serie oceánica más larga e ininterrumpida del Mediterráneo Noroccidental. Desde el año 2008, investigadores del proyecto ACDC muestrean agua para analizar pH, alcalinidad y carbono inorgánico. En esta propuesta se solicita una pequeña ayuda económica para estudiar el compartimento de carbono orgánico y poder examinar con más precisión la capacidad tamponadora de las aguas mediterráneas así como la variabilidad de los microorganismos en relación con la tendencia a la acidificación y calentamiento.

Proyecto: TOSCA
Tracking Oil Spills and Coastal Awareness (G-MED09-425 )
Periodo: 2010 – 2013
Coord.: Bernard Sans (Toulon Var Technologies, PMP-TVT)
http://www.tosca-med.eu/
The TOSCA project aims to develop a long-lasting network of policy makers & scientists for observation & forecasting of marine accidents (oil pollution, Search And Rescue (SAR) operations …), in the Mediterranean Sea. TOSCA will supply forecast models, risk maps & action plans developed by the scientists in collaboration with the local authorities, which will enable them to improve their immediate response capacity & to ensure a sustainable costal monitoring.
The TOSCA (Tracking Oil Spills & Coastal Awareness network) project, cofinanced by the European Regional Development fund in the framework of the Med Programme, aims to improve the quality, speed and effectiveness of decision-making process in case of marine accidents in the Mediterranean concerning oil spill pollution and search and rescue (SAR) operations.
To answer this objective, the following specific objectives will be met during the project:
1. Develop a sustainable scientific monitoring & forecasting system. Through the construction of an observational network, based on state of the art technology (HF radars and drifters), the project will provide real-time observations and forecasts of the marine environmental conditions in the Western and Eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. The system will be installed and assessed in five test sites on the coastal areas of oil spill outlets (Eastern Mediterranean) and on high traffic areas (Western Mediterranean). The use of state of the art technology will provide more accurate oil spill tracking and trajectory forecasts.
2. Create a support tool for decision-making process in case of maritime accidents. Gathered data will be combined in a useful decision support tool for authorities in charge of marine emergency response. Based on the needs of local authorities around the Mediterranean, the system will be implemented on a territorial scale and will provide critical information to support decision-making process in case of maritime accident (objects and oil spill tracking and trajectories, ocean current and dispersion maps, mapping of risk areas, vulnerability maps…)
3.Elaborate a common management strategy on oil spill and SAR operations. The network will be used to implement action plans in collaboration with local authorities as well as a common scientific strategy in cooperation with policy makers to provide immediate response, mitigation and long term management of oil spill pollution and SAR operations in case of marine accidents.

Proyecto: EUROFLEETS
Towards an Alliance of European Research Fleets ( 228344-CSA-INfra)
Periodo: 2009 – 2013
Coord.: Jacques Binot (IFREMER)
http://www.eurofleets.eu/np4/home.html
The marine environment represents a vast universe of natural resources that has yet to be fully explored. This universe holds a myriad of possibilities that can help support European economic development. While the marine environment holds such potential, it is costly to access, highly variable and very unpredictable. This, together with increasing societal demands, means that marine research needs to come together and work in a holistic fashion with a long-term approach. The EU-funded EUROFLEETS project will work to do just this by creating an alliance of marine research centres across Europe that will be able to work together and share resources, improving the quality of marine research in Europe.

Proyecto: MEDDIVERSA
Cambio global en las comunidades con alta diversidad en el Coralígeno del Mar Mediterráneo: Consecuencias para la conservación de su biodiversidad. (20100421)
Periodo: 2010 – 2013
http://meddiversa.medrecover.org/
The main aim of this project is to investigate the current extent of biodiversity of the high diverse coralligenous community of the NW Mediterranean Sea, detect its changes, and create a scientific platform in developing future scenarios of biodiversity response to global change across large spatial and mid-to long-term temporal scales. For this purpose, we will carry out several field surveys in different Marine Protected Areas along the coast of Spain and France (covering more than 3000km of coastline). We will quantify the occurrences, abundances, and distributions of macrospecies (macroalgae and invertebrates) through photographic surveys. Additionally, environmental data will be integrated to the biodiversity analyses.
Project coordinated by Núria Teixidó (nteixido@icm.csic.es) and Joaquim Garrabou

Proyecto: FAMOSO 2
Destino de la floración primaveral de mar abierto en el Mediterráneo noroccidental (CTM2008-06261-C03-00)
Periodo: 2009 – 2013

Proyecto: ECOALFACS
ECOlogical mechanisms controlling (harmful) phytoplankton blooms in ALFACS Bay (Ebro Delta) (CTM2009-09581)
Periodo: 2010 – 2013
The proliferations of certain microalgae, known as \”Harmful Algal Blooms\” (HABs), cause world-wide problems with significant ecologic, economic, social and human health consequences and constraint the sustainable development of marine resources. In this project, we aim to provide integrated knowledge on key biological, chemical and physical conditions that favour the proliferation of harmful phytoplankton species in an aquacultural site, the Alfacs Bay of the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean). Specifically, we aim to investigate: 1) the potential role of dissolved nutrients and mixotrophy; 2) the variability of the in situ growth rates of key (harmful) phytoplankton species; 3) the impact of protozoan micrograzers on the phytoplankton community and specifically on harmful species; 4) the significance of the preferential vertical location of some (harmful) phytoplankton species linked to their migratory behaviour; 5) the role of the circulation patterns in the retention time of the phytoplankton biomass. The obtained data will be assimilated into NPZD and numerical-physical models, to test hypotheses concerning biological and physico-chemical mechanisms involved in HAB development.

Proyecto: CALOCEAN
Estudio del desarrollo embrionario y larvario de calamares oceánicos de interés pesquero (AGL2009-11546)
Periodo: 2010 – 2013
http://calocean.icm.csic.es/
Los calamares oceánicos representan la mayor biomasa de cefalópodos a nivel mundial y su explotación pesquera representa el 62% del total de capturas mundiales de cefalópodos. Aún así, el conocimiento existente sobre sus fases embrionarias y larvarias es muy limitado. El presente proyecto pretende obtener los protocolos de laboratorio necesarios para el estudio del desarrollo de sus embriones y larvas en condiciones experimentales y conocer en la medida de lo posible su morfología y comportamiento. La obtención de material embrionario y larvario en laboratorio se realizará a partir de la recolección de gametos procedentes de calamares salvajes maduros recolectados del medio natural, utilizando técnicas de criopreservación de esperma y técnicas de fecundación in vitro. El principal reto de proyecto es conseguir cultivar larvas de calamares oceánicos, objetivo todavía no alcanzado por ningún equipo investigador a nivel mundial. La consecución de este objetivo permitiría el futuro estudio bajo condiciones controladas del crecimiento, comportamiento y adaptaciones morfológicas al medioambiente de larvas de calamares oceánicos y abriría las puertas a su maricultura. Para realizar el estudio se ha seleccionado la familia Ommastrephidae, el grupo de calamares oceánicos de mayor importancia pesquera a nivel mundial y las especies objeto de estudio son: Illex coindetii, Todarodes sagittatus y Todaropsis eblanae, principales especies de ommastréfidos capturados y comercializados en aguas ibéricas. Así mismo, se pretende analizar las paralarvas de este grupo procedentes de campañas oceanográficas realizadas en años recientes y contrastarlas con el material cultivado. Palabras clave: cefalópodos, calamar, recursos marinos, larvas, nutrición.

Proyecto: CONTOURIBER
Los sistemas deposicionales contorníticos generados por las masas de agua mediterranea alrededor de Iberia: Evolución e implicaciones ambientales. Evolución neógena-cuaternaria (CTM2008-06399-C04-04)
Periodo: 2009 – 2013
El Proyecto CONTOURIBER, es un proyecto coordinado financiado por el Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, que involucra a un total de 40 investigadores tanto de diferentes grupos nacionales e internacionales como de empresas. Las instituciones nacionales que lideran el proyecto son: el Grupo XM-1 del Dpto. de Geociencias Marinas de la Universidad de Vigo (UVI), cuyo Investigador responsable (IP) del subproyecto es el Dr. F. Javier Hernández-Molina; el Grupo GEOMARCO- del ICMConsejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC, Barcelona) cuyo IP es la Dr. Gemma Ercilla, y el Grupo de Geología Marina del Instituto Geológico y Minero de España (IGME, Madrid) cuyo IP es la Dr. Teresa Medialdea. Además, participan activamente el Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO) y la Universidad de Cádiz (UCA). Las instituciones extranjeras que participan son: Heriot Watt University (UK); Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italy); Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG, Portugal); Renard Centre of Marine Geology, Ghent University (Belgium); Research Naval Laboratory (USA); Universidad de Burdeos (Francia); Universidad de La Sapienza (Roma, Italia); Universidad de Rabat (Marruecos) y Universidad Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris, France). También apoyan y colaboran en el Proyecto varias empresas: REPSOL, TGS-NOPEC, SECEG SA (Sociedad Española de Comunicación del Estrecho de Gibraltar) y TELEFÓNICA. El objetivo científico principal de este proyecto es el estudio del efecto generado por las masas de agua mediterráneas alrededor de Iberia, su evolución e implicaciones ambientales. La contribución de dichas masas de agua a la circulación oceánica y al clima es indudablemente de importancia global. Tras la salida al Océano Atlántico a través del Estrecho de Gibraltar, las masas de agua mediterráneas realizan un largo recorrido al fluir hacia el norte, oeste y sur. La rama septentrional circula a lo largo del margen portugués, rodea el Golfo de Vizcaya y continúa hacia el norte hasta alcanzar el Mar de Noruega, mientras que la rama meridional alcanza las islas Canarias. La interacción de las masas de agua con el fondo submarino genera rasgos erosivos y deposicionales muy importantes. A la acumulación sedimentaria generada por la corriente se le llama contornitas. Estos depósitos “contorníticos” pueden ser de grandes dimensiones (centenares de Kilómetros) y espesores sedimentarios (centenares de metros), que contienen un valioso registro de la formación y evolución de nuestros fondos marinos. Su estudio ha constituido una de las líneas activas de investigación en Geología Marina en el ámbito internacional durante la última década por su interés en conocer la historia paleoceanográfica, paleoclimatológica, la estabilidad sedimentaria de los fondos marinos de interés para la ingenieria marina, así como relación directa con yacimientos de hidrocarburos y yacimienos minerales. En este contexto, la Campaña CONTOURIBER pretende evaluar el efecto que tiene en la actualidad y que ha tenido en el pasado la ciculación de las masas de agua en los fondos del Mar de Alboran, Golfo de Cadiz, a la salida del Estrecho de Gibraltar, Margen de Galicia y Mar Cantábrico, en contextos geológicos diferentes, para alcanzar los siguientes objetivos: 1. Caracterizar las estructuras geológicas del margen continental y como influyen (y han influido en el pasado) en la circulación de las masas de agua. 2. Cartografiar, algunos por primera vez, y determinar cómo se construyen los depósitos contorníticos generados por la influencia de las masas de agua mediterráneas . 3. Determinar su evolución en cada una de las zonas para reconstruir las variaciones climáticas y del nivel del mar y cómo éstas influyen en la circulación marina, pasada y presente. 4. Implicaciones de las masas de agua sobre los fondos marinos, tanto en la presencia de recursos minerales, como sobre el desarrollo de geohabitats específicos. Por consiguiente, el proyecto CONTOURIBER es un proyecto multidisciplinar que aborda novedosos objetivos científicos en relación con áreas muy poco conocidas. Las actividades planteadas están relacionadas con la propuesta aceptada para realizar sondeos profundos en el Golfo de Cádiz y oeste de Portugal, dentro del programa internacional Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP).

Proyecto: PARAL
Ecología, estructura y genética de un parásito de algas tóxicas: un modelo sobre la evolución del parasitisno (CTM2009-08399-MAR)
Periodo: 2010 – 2013
The relevance of the parasitism on protists in marine planktonic ecosystems has been for long underestimated, although the huge diversity of life cycles and lifestyles displayed by parasites suggest that they are highly interesting from both an ecological and evolutionary point of view. Interactions among planktonic protists represent a complex web of great relevance given that: i) the major part of the organisms are infected by eukaryotic parasites, prokaryotes or viruses, ii) they can frequently regulate the host populations, iii) they can act as a selective pressure within the host populations and therefore determine the evolution.
PARAL main objectives focus on general questions related to the ecology, phylogeny, physiology and evolution of the parasites using as a model a scarcely studied genus of parasites, Parvilucifera, although well-known for killing toxic algae responsible of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs).
Parvilucifera is a genus whose morphology has not been described well (despite the importance of having a proper description of these parasites to sustain the creation of a new phylum in the alveolates) recenly included in the taxon Perkinsozoa, which includes the genus Parvilucifera, Perkinsus and Colpodella. Given the capacity of Parvilucifera to infect toxic algae, the ecology of this parastie-host model is also of great social interest. However, the in situ quantification of the parasite infection has never been done, and therefore, the relevance of the parasite effect in the field is unknown. Eukaryotic parasites have long been considered as potential agents for controlling the noxious and/or toxic episodes caused by dinoflagellate blooms in marine environments and P. infectans has a significant impact on dinoflagellate populations under laboratory conditions. But, the effective use of Parvilucifera in controlling harmful algal blooms in natural environments will depend on prior knowledge of the ecology of the parasite both in natural occurrences and with respect to its exploitation as a biological control agent. Specifically, the behaviour of the parasite and the sensitive hosts at various cell densities, and the stages of the parasite population’s life cycle remain to be determined. Understanding the origins of diversity in these parasites transcends the interest of evolutionary biologists, such knowledge being essential for HABs control.
The goals of PARAL can be summarized in the following points: 1) To explore, characterize and quantify of the different Parvilucifera stages in a bloom development, 2) To study of the parasite ultrastructure to better understand the phylogeny of the mostly unknown lineage it belongs 3) To characterize of the life cycle and the physiological mechanisms and tolerances to the parasite infection, and 4) To quantify of the parasite population’s genetic diversity.
The objective 1) pursues to study the abundance and distribution of the Parvilucifera parasite over space and time in bloom events. We want here, to determine the processes affecting distribution and abundance of parasites and how these processes are influenced by the interaction between organisms (biotic factors) and the local abiotic factors. The main goal of the objective 2) is to carry out a detailed study of the ultrastructure of Parvilucifera zooids, including the flagellar apparatus, essential to improve the understanding of the lineages that do not fall neatly within the Apicomplexa and the Dinoflagellata sensu stricto. For achieving the objective 3) is necessary to carry out a detailed study of the Parvilucifera life cycle, since genetic and environmental selective pressures have shaped complex life cycles in parasites, which in turn have influenced the parasites ecology. And finally, the main goal of the objective 4 is to achieve a better knowledge of the intraspecific genetic variation of the parasite populations.

Proyecto: IDEADOS
Estructura y dinámica del ecosistema bentopelágico de talud en dos zonas oligotróficas del Mediterráneo occidental: una aproximación multidisciplinar y a distintas escalas temporales en las Islas Baleares (CTM2008-04489-C03-02)
Periodo: 2009 – 2013
Coord.: Massutí Sureda, Enric (Instituto Español de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanográfico de Baleares)
IP(ICM/UTM) : M. Olivar
tructure and dynamics of the benthopelagic slope ecosystem in two oligotrophic zones of the western Mediterranean: a multidisciplinary approach at different temporal scales in the Balearic Islands (acronym: IDEADOS) The overall objective of the present project consists of determining the relationships between environmental conditions and the nektobenthic slope communities in two oligotrophic areas of the western Mediterranean (the Balearic Islands and Algerian subbasins), with different geomorphologic and hydrodynamic characteristics. It will put special emphasis on the study of the trophic coupling of the organisms in these communities and the populations of the meso – and bathypelagic domain. In addition, different temporal scales and different levels of organization (population, community and ecosystem) will be analyzed. The project will simultaneously approach the study of the pelagic domain (micro-, meso – and macrozooplankton, micro – and macronekton), and the populations and epibenthic slope communities, within the context of the hydrodynamics of the areas.

Proyecto: TANIT
DiversiTAt i fuNcLó dels bacTeris en els Oceans a través del projecte de circumnavegació global Tara-Oceans (CONES 2010-0036)
Periodo: 2011 – 2013
Gracias a los microorganismos planctónicos que viven en los primeros 200 m de la superficie del mar, el 50% de la producción global de CO2 a la Tierra es absorbida por el océano. De este porcentaje, un 30% es absorbido por microorganismos de origen bacteriano. Si se tiene en cuenta que las bacterias marinas son además responsables del 95% de la respiración del océano, está claro que estos microorganismos son imprescindibles para mantener en equilibrio de la atmósfera del planeta.
Entre 2009 y 2012 se lleva a cabo la expedición científica TARA OCEANS a bordo del TARA, un velero de 36 metros de longitud, que permitirá a mas de un centenar de científicos explorar la diversidad microbiana en los océanos de todo el planeta y su sensibilidad al cambio climático, un cambio que está sucediendo a una velocidad 100 veces más rápida del que se haya documentado previamente por estudios geológicos.
Esta expedición científica, de tres años de duración, es una oportunidad única de circunnavegación global de los océanos en el cual científicos expertos en biología, ecología, oceanografía, física, genómica y bioinformática tendrán la oportunidad de analizar los organismos que viven en el plancton marino como un ecosistema único, desde larvas de peces hasta microorganismos invisibles al ojo humano (como protistas, bacterias, arqueas y virus) y su relación con el ambiente.
El proyecto TANIT explorará el “mundo bacteriano” estudiando la biogeografía y función de las bacterias marinas en los diferentes océanos del planeta, integrando técnicas de ecología molecular y de genómica. Está previsto recolectar muestras en casi 400 puntos alrededor del planeta y aplicar técnicas genómicas (estudio de metagenomas y metatranscriptomas) para explorar la diversidad genética y funcional de estas comunidades microbianas, para evaluar y posteriormente modelar su adaptación a condiciones climáticas futuras.
ENLACES:
Expedición TARA OCEANS http://oceans.taraexpeditions.org/

Proyecto: MYOCEAN
Development and pre-operational validation of upgraded GMES Marine Core services and capabilities (FP7-SPACE-2007-1-CT-218812-MYOCEAN )
Periodo: 2009 – 2012
Coord.: Pierre Bahurel (MERCATOR OCEAN)
With the GMES program and its Marine Core Service (MCS) fast-track, the European community is consolidating past efforts in pre-operational ocean monitoring and forecasting capacity in Europe developed through precursors projects in FP6 MERSEA and BOSS4GMES or GSE MARCOAST and POLARVIEW. The MyOcean consortium – composed of 61 partners over 28 countries – proposes to deliver a pan-European MCS product and service portfolio through a robust and optimised ocean monitoring and forecasting core infrastructure. The validation process planned through a 3 year experiment will enable to organise an MCS user-driven service during a pre-operational phase with propositions addressing the MCS long-term roadmap. Thanks to the existing community and efficient networks like EuroGOOS, MyOcean will provide core information on the ocean in all areas of benefit identified by the MCS Implementation Group to key categories of intermediate users: the EU agencies (EEA, EMSA, …), the Member States service providers (Met offices, coast guards, …), the Intergovernmental bodies or their members (OSPAR, HELCOM, …). The Global ocean and the European seas will be monitored with an eddy-resolving capacity, based on assimilation of space and in situ data into 3D models, representing the physical state, the ice and the ecosystems of the ocean; in the past (25 years), in real-time and in the future (1-2 weeks). The high-quality products will rely on the aggregation of European modelling tools and the scientific methodology will be produced through a strong cross-fertilization between operational and research communities. Observations, model-based data, and added-value products will be generated – and enhanced thanks to dedicated expertise – by the following production units: – Five Thematic Assembly Centers, each of them dealing with a specific set of observation data: Sea Level, Ocean colour, Sea Surface Temperature, Sea Ice & Wind, and In Situ data, – Seven Monitoring and Forecasting Centers to serve the Global Ocean, the Arctic area, the Baltic Sea, the Atlantic North-West shelves area, the Atlantic Iberian-Biscay-Ireland area, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black sea. Intermediate and final users will discover, view and get the products by means of a central web desk, a central re-active manned service desk and thematic experts distributed across Europe. Routine/bulk delivery, response to specific queries through viewing tools and helpdesk service, self-training will be the proposed types of service. In addition, the MyOcean consortium will commit to provide users with operational and qualified products and services. Therefore, a Quality Management System will be implemented along all operational chains with dedicated Key Performances Indicators and Metrics. The operational commitments – in compliance with user’s requirements – will be defined in contractual agreements between data suppliers, production units and users at the levels of procurement, production and service, respectively. For sake of integration and assessment of services, several operational donwnstream service providers selected among key categories of users will be invited to participate to the project and evaluate the use and benefits of MyOcean MCS services for marine safety, management of marine resources, environmental and coastal management and climate and seasonal forecasting. The MyOcean service will be also open and accessible to any GMES downstream service provider candidate to validate the MCS service. A strong involvement from key users will enable the qualification of the MyOcean products portfolio to ensure a complete readiness towards long-term operational oceanography services in European waters.

Proyecto: MIDAS-6
SMOS ocean salinity and soil moisture products. Improvements and applications demonstration (AYA2010-22062-C05-01)
Periodo: 2011 – 2012
Coord.: Font Ferré, Jordi (ICM)
http://www.smos-bec.icm.csic.es/
After the successful launch of SMOS in November 2009, the operational phase of the mission will start by mid 2010. Spain has been involved with unprecedented scientific, technological and industrial leading role in this European Earth Observation mission that aims at providing for the first time global measurements of surface ocean salinity and soil moisture, using a L-band aperture synthesis interferometric radiometer (MIRAS).
Through a series of activities funded by CDTI (technology), the National R+D Plan, and ESA, the proposer team has been able to significantly contribute to the mission. This new proposal aims at consolidating the main results achieved in the previous projects, but also introduces new solutions to the problems on the instrument behaviour, which show up now that the first real SMOS measurements are available. At the same time, we have to maintain the activities of the original high-level Spanish contribution to the mission, the CP34 system, both in its operational aspects at ESAC and in the scientific components, validating and improving its products.
Finally, a fundamental scientific objective is to start demonstrating the usefulness of SMOS, through several activities addressing the data exploitation in climatic, oceanographic and hydrologic applications. From now on, Spain should obtain the scientific and societal return of the economic and institutional efforts invested on SMOS, and the present proposal is a clear step forward in this direction.

Proyecto: COSTEM
Dinámica Sedimentaria Actual en la Transformación Plataforma-Talud del Margen Continental del Ebro (CTM2009-07806)
Periodo: 2010 – 2012

Proyecto
Combining thermal manipulation and transcriptomic analysis to decipher the environmental influences on sex ratios in fish populations (I-LINK0195)
Periodo: 2011 – 2012
The sex ratio is a fundamental parameter in biology that significantly determines the reproductive potential of all sorts of populations. The sex ratio is established by the processes of sex determination (genetic or environmental determination of the gender of and individual) and sex differentiation (the development of a gonadal primordium and its transformation into an ovary or a testis). The study of the processes leading to the sex ratio has both basic interest (evolution of sex determining mechanisms, speciation, mating behavior) as well as applied interest (control of sex ratios for aquaculture, restocking, control of invasive species, etc.). The overall objective of this project is to contribute to the still poorly understood processes sex determination and differentiation in fish, both under normal conditions and as a consequence of thermal variations, by looking at the underlying molecular mechanisms; in particular, to determine how the environment that the animals experience in early life determines subsequent gene function. To achieve this, the specific objectives are: 1) To study the whole transcriptome of zebrafish after being exposed to different temperatures for different periods of time during early development by using a specific oligo-based microarray. This will contribute to understand the effects of temperature on development in general. 2) To study the gonadal transcriptome of zebrafish after being exposed to different temperatures for different periods of time during early development by using a RT-PCR macroarray containing up to 96 genes involved in sex determination and differentiation. This will help to understand the effects of temperature specifically on genes currently known to be involved in sex determination and differentiation. 3 To study the whole transcriptome of zebrafish after being exposed to DNA methylation inhibitors for different periods of time during early development by using a specific oligo-based microarray. This will help to understand the importance of epigenetic mechanisms operating during early development. The area of study of this project is: Developmental biology > Sex determination and differentiation > Environmental epigenetics. The subject of study of this project is the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model organism very suitable for research on the effects of environmental on sex ratios because it has a polygenic system of sex determination with environmental (temperature) influences on sex ratios. This is the same combination as the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), which is one of the most important species for European (mainly Mediterranean) aquaculture, where in many species there are undesirable effects of the high temperatures used to accelerate growth in modern fish farming.

Proyecto
SMOS Expert Laboratories (ESL) for the period 2010-2014 – ESL Ocean Salinity (RFQ ESRIN/3-13003/10/I-O)
Periodo: 2011 – 2012

Proyecto: ECOBAF
Papel ECOlógico de las Bacterias Aeróbicas anoxigénicas Fototróficas marinas a escala global (CTM2010-10462-E)
Periodo: 2010 – 2012
Las bacterias aeróbicas anoxigénicas fototróficas (AAPs) constituyen un grupo de microorganismos mixotróficos, cuya relevancia en el océano no está del todo clara. Estos organismos contienen bacterioclorofila a (BChla) y aunque no son capaces de fijar CO2, pueden utilizar la luz para generar ATP lo que les aporta una ventaja ecológica frente a otros heterótrofos cuando la disponibilidad de C orgánico es limitada. Por ello, cuando inicialmente se descubrieron se pensó que éstas serian abundantes en ambientes oligotróficos, dónde de hecho pueden representar hasta el 10-20% del total de procariotas. Sin embargo, más tarde se vió que las AAPs también pueden ser abundantes en ambientes eutróficos por lo que no está muy claro cúal es su papel ecológico. Con esta Acción Complementaria hemos obtenido financiación para participar en un proyecto de circunnavegación global del océano (Tara-Oceans) dónde convertiremos un fluorómetro convencional en uno ultrasensible en el infrarojo que permite detectar de forma rápida y sencilla la presencia de AAPs. Este instrumento será utilizado también en el proyecto de circunnavegación Malaspina. Tara-Oceans durante tres años, y Malaspina en 7 meses recorrerán las principales provincias oceánicas. Estas dos campañas oceanográficas nos brindan una oportunidad única de estudiar la dinámica de las AAPs a escala global, en ambientes de distinto nivel trófico nunca estudiados anteriormente, lo que sin duda aportará información de gran valor para entender su papel ecológico en el océano y su impacto en el ciclo del C.

Proyecto: SUMMER 2011
CAMPAÑA OCEANOGRÁFICA SUMMER 2011 (CTM2010-11982-E)
Periodo: 2011 – 2012

Proyecto: ASPECTS
Acidificación oceánica y Sus efectos sobre Procariotas En asociación con Corales determinados mediante Técnicas de Secuenciación masiva (CTM2010-12062-E)
Periodo: 2011 – 2012
Los corales arrecifales viven en asociación con una gran variedad de microbios eucariotas y procariotas, además de hongos y virus. Recientemente se ha observado que, bajo diferentes condiciones de estrés medioambiental, las poblaciones de microorganismos asociadas con los corales varían, y se especula que quizás ello tenga que ver con los casos de adaptación de los corales a ciertas infecciones, ante las cuales desarrollaron algún tipo de resistencia. Ante estas evidencias se postuló recientemente la ‘Coral Probiotic Hypothesis’ que sugiere que estas complejas interacciones entre microorganismos y corales, lo que se conoce como el ‘holobionte coralino’, funcionan como un mecanismo ventajoso y estabilizador para todo el sistema. A través de cambios en las comunidades microbianas, el holobionte conseguiría adaptarse a los cambios medioambientales de una manera más rápida que lo que se conseguiría a través de cambios mutacionales y selección natural. En este contexto, ASPECTS estudiará esta posibilidad frente a cambios asociados con la acidificación oceánica, una nueva presión medioambiental derivada de la absorción de CO2 antropogénico en los mares y océanos. Para ello, se participará en un experimento con corales tropicales en Heron Island, Gran Barrera del Coral, Australia, en el cual se modificará el pH y también la temperatura, simulando escenarios futuros. Una vez finalizado el experimento, se analizarán los microorganismos procariotas que viven en asociación con los corales mediante técnicas de pirosecuenciación masiva.

Proyecto: AQUALIGHT
New methods of AQUAtic hyperspectral LIGHT field analysis for the concurrent characterisation of physical and bio-optical processes at small scales (255396 )
Periodo: 2010 – 2012
http://www.aqualight.info/
There is a growing concern with the marine environment and societies fear the depletion of fish stocks, pollution and possible impacts of climate change such as the loss of biodiversity. Most of the biological diversity in the ocean relies on the presence of phytoplankton as primary producers and the first element in the oceanic food chain. With over 20,000 known species, the importance of these ubiquitous plants as a food source for the pelagos and as a potential sink of atmospheric carbon have been widely recognised. Traditionally, ship-based observations were the main source of oceanographic data but they can only ever provide spot measurements within a highly dynamic and heterogeneous environment. Likewise, satellite-based remote sensing of ocean colour has similar limitations as it can only probe the skin of the ocean. A third approach is currently being implemented which aims to fill this observational gap by deploying autonomous long-term underwater observatories that allow the study of multiple inter-related properties, variables, and processes in real time and over a range of time and space scales. These observatories fundamentally rely on non-intrusive optical measurements for data acquisition and recent technological advances such as the development of hyperspectral sensors have greatly increased their potential applications. For the first time, scientists can obtain non-intrusive continuous measurements at small-scales to observe the dynamics of underwater ecosystems in situ and in vivo. However, there is an urgent need to further develop the underlying theoretical frameworks and analytical methods in order to be able to use these new technologies to their full potential. AQUALIGHT will make an important contribution to this by developing new analytical methods for the detection and identification of phytoplankton functional types and species, including the characterization of dynamical processes such as growth, photoacclimation and turbulent transport.

Proyecto: SAGASBIS
Adquisición de datos geológicos en el mar de Alboran (CTM2009-07893-E)
Periodo: 2010 – 2012
Esta Acción Complementaria se plantea en el marco del proyecto SAGAS financiado por el Plan Nacional. Las deficiencias y problemas técnicos acontecidos durante la campaña SAGAS- adscrita a dicho proyecto y realizada a finales del 2008 a bordo del Bio Hespérides- impidieron la obtención de datos geológicos (acústicos, sísmicos y de sedimentos) en el Mar de Alborán y que son fundamentales para el desarrollo del mencionado proyecto. El propósito de esta Acción Complementaria es la realización de dos campañas geológicas: la campaña 1 tiene como objetivo la adquisición de datos acústicos y de sísmica del fondo marino a bordo del Sarmiento de Gamboa en el 2010 y la campaña 2 tiene como objetivo la adquisición de testigos de sedimento durante el 2011 a bordo del Sarmiento de Gamboa y/o Bio Hespérides así como el tratamiento analítico de los sedimentos.

Proyecto
Dinámica y termodinámica de sistemas marinos costeros: La Bahia dels Alfacs (201030I048)
Periodo: 2011 – 2012

Proyecto: HERMIONE REC
HERMIONE-REC: Hostpot Ecosystem Research and Man’s Impact on European Seas. (226354)
Periodo: 2009 – 2012
The HERMIONE-REC project will study biodiversity, distribution and the life cycle of key megafauna species in canyons, slopes and deep basins in the northwestern, central and eastern Mediterranean. The population structure will be described and reproductive patterns analysed to understand life-history patterns and dispersal potential. Furthermore, historical data on landing time-series from the fisheries along the Catalan coast will be compiled and validated with scientific ecological information relative to past dense water cascading events, providing baseline information for future management options. The MRR will also contribute to the development of protocols for baseline studies in relation to the exploitation of resources in chemosynthetic habitats and is responsible for the cross-cutting theme that will integrate results on anthropogenic impact across all work-packages.

Proyecto: HERMIONE-GEO
HERMIONE-GEO: Hostpot Ecosystem Research and Man’s Impact on European Seas. (226354)
Periodo: 2009 – 2012
The HERMIONE-GEO project will study sediment dynamic processes in the Cap the Creus and Palamós (Fonera) submarine canyons to determine cross-margin sediment transport mechanisms and differentiate anthropogenic (e.g. trawling-induced) and natural (i.e. storms and dense shelf water cascading) processes. One of the main objectives will be to assess how sedimentary processes can affect (either positively or negatively) marine ecosystems, from benthic communities (studied in the HERMIONE-BIO project) to megafauna species (studied in the HERMIONE-REC project). To conduct this task, several moored instruments equipped with current meters with turbidity, temperature, conductivity and pressure sensors and sediment traps will be deployed within these canyons, and focused oceanographic cruises will be conducted during mooring turnarounds. Additionally, Hg content will be studied in suspended particles, surfaced sediments, and sediment trap samples to assess the anthropogenic impact (i.e. contamination) associated to sediment transport from shelf-to-submarine canyon environments.

Proyecto: HERMIONE-BIO
HERMIONE-BIO: Hostpot Ecosystem Research and Man’s Impact on European Seas. (226354)
Periodo: 2009 – 2012
The HERMIONE-BIO project will study the physiological mechanism involved in the functionality of the deep corals. Trophic activity, diet, and prey capture rates of key species will be determined. New methods based on biochemical analysis (as indicators of the physiological state of the organisms) and on stable isotope studies (as markers of matter and energy transfer from the shelf to and through the canyon) will also be applied. Reproduction patterns of several key species will be investigated as indicators of species fitness and potential recruitment success. More over calcification rates and ecophysiological studies will be developed, as well as growth rates. All the proposed work will be conducted with organisms of 4 different species from the Cap de Creus canyon maintained in aquaria and collected during the HERMES project.

Proyecto: SUMMER
Evaluación in situ de la modulación de la exposición a la radiación solar por la mezcla superficial en el oceano (CTM2008-03309)
Periodo: 2009 – 2011
El proyecto SUMMER pretende avanzar en el conocimiento de los efectos dinámicos de la radiación solar y de la mezcla vertical sobre la fisiología y actividad del plancton, y sobre la biogeoquímica de la materia orgánica y los gases traza en el mar superficial. Para ello, uno de los propósitos de SUMMER es el desarrollo de un aparato que simule la mezcla vertical y permita incubaciones de agua de mar en campos de luz realistas.
Aunque la radiación solar es el motor de la mayor parte de la vida en la Tierra, contiene energía en longitudes de onda (principalmente en el ultravioleta, UVR) que son dañinas para los seres vivos, los cuales han tenido que desarrollar sistemas de protección y reparación. Para un organismo, tanto daño como la reparación dependen esencialmente de la dosis de UVR recibida y del tiempo del que dispone para su recuperación. Los organismos planctónicos y las moléculas disueltas experimentan un campo de luz que varía con el movimiento vertical del agua. Ello impone una dinámica de daño/reparación muy difícil de resolver experimentalmente. Cualquier medición realista de las actividades biológicas y biogeoquímicas en el océano superficial debería de tener en cuenta esta exposición variable a la luz. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha no ha habido buenas soluciones y, o bien las dinámicas fotobiológica y fotoquímica se han ignorado y, como mucho, las muestras se han incubado a condiciones discretas de luz y se han promediado, o se ha recurrido a modelos numéricos.
El proyecto se despliega mediante montajes experimentales de complejidad creciente: (a) SUNTEST: exposición de muestras naturales a dosis de radiación generada por lámparas en el laboratorio; (b) SUNPOOL: exposición a la luz natural, manipulada en su espectro, en bañeras; (c) SOLARIS: exposición in situ en el agua, cambiando las profundidades con el tiempo; (d) SUMMIT: diseño, construcción y aplicación de un vehículo robotizado que se desplaza verticalmente en la capa de mezcla y permite la incubación de muestras en condiciones realistas; (e) SEATEST: operación del SUMMIT en mar abierto durante una campaña oceanográfica; (f) SEASIDE: serie estacional en aguas costeras donde se caracterizará el campo de luz y se harán mediciones para evaluar si lo que hemos aprendido en los experimentos nos ayuda a explicar la evolución estacional de un ecosistema pelágico costero.

Proyecto: OITHOGREEN
Papel del copépodo marino Oithona en las redes tróficas polares: El caso de Groenlandia, un ecosistema amenazado (CTM2010-10036-E)
Periodo: 2010 – 2011
http://www.icm.csic.es/bio/projects/oithogreen/home.htm
El objetivo de este proyecto es estudiar el papel de los copépodos de pequeño tamaño, y en especial el género Oithona, en los flujos de carbono del sistema pelágico en la región ártica-subártica, en concreto en el banco de Fyllas y en el fiordo Godthåbsfjorden, un área rica en recursos pesqueros y minerales, y altamente vulnerable ante el calentamiento global y el impacto de la actividad humana. Para llevar a cabo dicho estudio se participa en una campaña oceanográfica en la zona mencionada a bordo del B/O Dana, en colaboración con el proyecto “Biological Oceanography of Fyllas Bank – Godthåbsfjorden”, dirigido por el profesor Torkel G. Nielsen (National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark).

Proyecto: MOC2
Memoria oceánica del clima: mecanismos y rutas de formación de aguas superficiales en el Atlántico ecuatorial (CTM2008-06438-C02-01)
Periodo: 2009 – 2011
El objetivo fundamental del proyecto MOC2 (Memoria Oceánica del Clima: mecanismos y rutas de formación de aguas superficiales en el Atlántico ecuatorial, referencia CTM2008-06438-C02) es investigar la magnitud del transporte y las transformaciones que experimentan las aguas intermedias en su viaje desde el océano austral hasta su reincorporación en las aguas superficiales del Atlántico Ecuatorial. Para ello se determinarán los flujos de masa, calor, agua dulce, carbono y nutrientes desde el Atlántico Sur hacia el Atlántico Ecuatorial, y se cuantificará la incorporaciçon de las aguas intermedias hacia el océanoo superficial del Atlántico Ecuatorial. Para lograrlo se desarrollarán modelos, y se realizarán y analizarán mediciones de campo, desde una perspectiva interdisciplinar. Esta incluye el análisis de diversos tipos de datos pblicos, esfuerzos de calibración de nuevos sensores satelitales, campañas con mediciones de parámetros físicos, químicos y biológios, modelos oceánicos idealizados y de circulación general del Atlántico, y el mayor desarrollo de boyas de autónomas de mediciónes. El acrónimo MOC2 surge justamente de estas ideas: Meridional Overturning Circulation * Memoria Oceánica del Clima.

Proyecto: MLESIGN
Analysis of the ASCAT inversion residual for quality control and forward modelling improvement (CDOP-SG06-VS03)
Periodo: 2011 – 2011
The aim of this project is to improve the current operational quality control (QC) of the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT onboard MetOp satellite) level 2 wind product as well as to contribute to the development of an updated C-band Geophysical Model Function (GMF), i.e., CMOD-6. We will revisit the ASCAT QC on the basis of a thorough inversion residual (MLE) value and sign analysis. Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model output and rain data from satellite radiometry will be used to characterize the ASCAT-derived wind information content as a function of the MLE. Different QC strategies will be defined, if needed, for triplets inside and outside the GMF conical-shape surface in the ASCAT 3-D measurement space. We propose to perform a comprehensive analysis of the MLE value and sign at each wind vector cell (WVC) to check for possible GMF misfits, i.e., significant asymmetries in the MLE distributions (inside versus outside of the cone). The analysis will be carried out as a function of wind speed and wind direction to evaluate the different GMF coefficients’ (i.e., speed-related, upwind/downwind, upwind/crosswind) contribution to the misfit.

Proyecto: MICRODIVERSITY
The Role and Mechanisms of Genomic Microbial Microdiversity: a perspective integrating genomics and ecological approaches (CGL2008-00762/BOS)
Periodo: 2009 – 2011
Microbial diversity is a crucial element in our understanding of the evolution and ecology of natural environments but also an important resource for biotechnology and medical research. Molecular and genomic approaches not only have pointed out the vast diversity within microbial communities, but also have revealed the predominance of high level of sequence microheterogeneity “microdiversity” within co-existing bacterioplankton. However, the relevance, extension, functional differentiation and mechanisms responsible for such microdiversity patterns are barely known. For a better understanding of function and speciation in microbial populations in the environment more studies focusing on co-existing bacterial genomes within bacterial populations are needed at different temporal and space scales.
The major goal of this proposal is to shed light on the role and mechanisms of maintenance for microdiversity patterns in environmental microbial populations by exploring the genomic microdiversity of two specific marine bacterial populations (Bacteroidetes y Pseudanabaena) and the evolutionary mechanisms by which this microdiversity is generated and preserved. The innovation of the present project is based on the way to analyze the genomic microdiversity at different ecological contexts by exploring the microdiversity of two bacterial populations that exhibit abundances and different ecological strategies at three levels of resolution: (i) we will explore the genomic microdiversity from two bacterial populations at a global level (i) we will investigate the inherent microdiversity in a specific ecotype and the divergence between two different ecotypes and finally (iii) we will sequence two individual genomes that belong to same ecotype.
Without this knowledge, population biology, biogeography or environmental microbial genomics (metagenomics) cannot be rigorously explored.

Proyecto: HERMIONE
Estudio del impacto de la pesca de arrastre en el cañón submarino de Palamós (CTM2010-11084-E)
Periodo: 2011 – 2011
Para abordar los objetivos específicos propuestos en el proyecto HERMIONE, se solicitó esta Acción Complementaria para realizar dos campañas de 7 y 2 días de duración previstas para junio y octubre de 2011. La finalidad de estas campañas HERMIONE es estudiar el impacto de la pesca de arrastre en la dinámica sedimentaria y en el ecosistema bentónico del cañón submarino de Palamós y talud adyacente. En la primera campaña se fondearán dos anclajes oceanográficos para registrar la presencia de flujos gravitativos provocados por las artes de arrastre, se obtendrán perfiles hidrográficos para detectar la dispersión del sedimento resuspendido, se realizará una cartografía detallada del lecho del cañón y se tomarán testigos de sedimento. En la segunda campaña se recuperarán los anclajes previamente fondeados.

Proyecto: ECOFUN
Analysis of biodiversity changes on structural and functional properties of marine ecosystems under cumulative human stressors (219265)
Periodo: 2009 – 2011
The objective of the research under ECOFUN is to quantify how the structure of marine food-webs has changed due to past biodiversity changes and develop an understanding of how these changes have impacted ecosystem functioning. To accomplish this objective we are using an interdisciplinary approach applying meta-analysis of historical and recent data on species loss and ecosystem changes, food-web modelling and laboratory experiments. This first trial run approach may provide complementary information on how biodiversity loss resulting from different anthropogenic disturbances, such as fisheries exploitation and climate change, has affected the network structure and functioning of marine food-webs at different temporal and spatial scales.
Project coordinates by Marta Coll (mcoll@icm.csic.es)

Proyecto: EBITOX
Estudio de los aspectos biológicos y toxinológicos de dinoflagelados bentónicos relacionados con riesgos en la salud humano (CTQ2008-06754-C04-04 )
Periodo: 2009 – 2011
Coord.: José Mariano Franco Soler (Instituto Investigaciones Marinas-Vigo, CSIC )
Algunas especies de microalgas que suelen proliferar en verano en aguas cercanas a la costa son productoras de compuestos de elevada toxicidad. En los últimos años se ha detectado en el Mediterráneo distintos episodios de proliferaciones algales que coinciden con molestias respiratorias y/o de carácter alérgico en humanos que pasan unas horas cerca de la playa. Tales proliferaciones están causadas por especies de dinoflagelados bentónicos del género Ostreopsis, género habitual en mares tropicales pero que hasta esta década ha estado muy raramente documentado en el Mediterráneo. Otro género tropical, Gambierdiscus, se ha aislado recientemente en aguas del Mediterráneo oriental así como del archipiélago canario. Esta especie es la principal responsable de ciguatera, intoxicación causada por el consumo de peces contaminados por estas microalgas, en zonas tropicales del Caribe, Pacífico y del Índico. El presente proyecto tiene como objetivos principales 1) la caracterización morfológica, genética y toxinológica de diferentes cepas de estas especies, 2) la descripción de la distribución temporal y espacial de ambos géneros y la identificación de las condiciones ambientales que determinan las proliferaciones de las especies objetivo, 3) la descripción del ciclo vital en especies de ambos géneros, 4) demostrar la presencia de palytoxina, la toxina producida por Ostreopsis, en muestras de aerosoles marinos, así como determinar la potencial presencia de toxinas en muestras de invertebrados marinos (moluscos y erizos, básicamente). Éste objetivo tiene importancia a la hora de servir de referencia para el control en sanidad alimentaria.

Proyecto: COMSOM
Evaluación del estado de comunidades bentónicas sometidas a distinto grado de impacto pesquero y basura marina como herramienta de gestión del ecosistema (CTM2008-04617)
Periodo: 2009 – 2011
http://comsom.cmima.csic.es/
Es bien conocido que la pesca de arrastre (toda pesca que se lleva a cabo utilizando redes que se arrastran por el fondo marino) causa daños importantes en organismos y comunidades marinas: influye de forma directa sobre los recursos y de forma indirecta sobre los organismos que habitan sobre el fondo (bentos), ya sea de forma fija (esponjas, cnidarios, etc..) o desplazándose (cangrejos, estrellas de mar, etc..) y en general sobre los hábitats.
A los efectos de la pesca sobre los fondos y sobre la preservación de su biodiversidad, se suma la amenaza de la basura marina, y muy especialmente de los plásticos, que acaban favoreciendo a un tipo de organismos frente a otros.
El proyecto COMSOM nace de la necesidad urgente de desarrollar herramientas apropiadas para una evaluación eficaz de estos impactos sobre las comunidades y sus hábitats.
Su principal objetivo es construir unos modelos que expliquen los cambios que tienen lugar en las comunidades de fondos blandos de caladeros de pesca de arrastre, en función de la actividad pesquera. Al mismo tiempo, se pretende evaluar el impacto de la basura marina sedimentada. Se prevé que los modelos obtenidos daran lugar a la selección de indicadores capaces de representar el estado de perturbación de los organismos y de las comunidades en relación a distintos niveles de esfuerzo pesquero y densidad de basura marina, asi como su interacción.
La finalidad de este proyecto es facilitar la recuperación de la biodiversidad marina, de los caladeros de pesca para que los organismos alcancen una condición de vida mejor: para esto, se necesita plantear claramente un tipo de gestión que reduzca la perturbación antropogénica y proteja estos ecosistemas bentónicos.

Proyecto
Campañas multidisciplinares IDEADOS1209 e IDEADOS0710, para el estudio de la estructura y dinámica del ecosistema bentopelágico de talud en dos zonas oligotróficas del Mediteráneo Occidental (CTM2008-05233-E)
Periodo: 2009 – 2011

Proyecto: AGLOM
Participación en el lanzamiento de la red AGLO (Africa Great Lakes Observatory) y muestreo de lagos remotos e inexplorados (CGL2010-11556-E)
Periodo: 2010 – 2011

Proyecto: AGLOM
Participación en el lanzamiento de la red AGLO (Africa Great Lakes Observatory) y muestreo de lagos remotos e inexplorados (CGL2010-11556-E)
Periodo: 2010 – 2011
AGLOM: participation in the kickoff meeting of the network AGLO (Africa Great Lakes Observatory) and sampling campaign in remote and unexplored lakes The subvention is requested to cover the participation of the Spanish group from the ICM-CSIC (Barcelona) in two important events taking place in the last quarter of 2010: 1) the expert kickoff meeting in Bujumbura (Burundi) to launch the AGLO network (Africa Great Lakes Observatory), 2) to participate in the sampling campaign in remote and unexplored lakes (Kivu, Edward and Albert) in collaboration with Belgian and Congolese institutions. With this subvention the presence of a Spanish institution in these events of international importance would be assured. Furthermore, the activities proposed would promote synergies between existing projects as \”MICRODIVERSITY\” (National Plan project). African Lakes, Climate change, cyanobacteria, plankton, limnology, microbial ecology, fisheries, sustainable development

Proyecto: SUB-PALEOSIS
Organización del congreso \”Submarine Paleoseismology : The offshore search pf large Holocene earthquakes\” (CTM2010-10179-E)
Periodo: 2010 – 2011

Proyecto: ARGO-CANARIAS
Transmisión de perfiladores ARGO en la Cuenca de Canarias (CTM2009-08462)
Periodo: 2011 – 2011

Proyecto
Ruta y transformación inicial del agua mediterránea al Oeste del Estrecho de Gibraltar (A/023511/09)
Periodo: 2011 – 2011
El experimento MEDOUT-2010 estaba programado para realizase conjuntamente entre el Institut National de Recherches Halieutiques (INRH) y el Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM) en la región de la salida de agua mediterránea, en el marco de los proyectos MEDOUT-2010 (Mediterranean Outflow 2010, proyecto de la AECID con referencia número A/023511/09) y MOC2 (Memoria Oceánica del Clima: mecanismos y rutas de formación de aguas superficiales en el Atlántico ecuatorial, proyecto del Plan Nacional de I+D con referencia número CTM2008-06438-C02-01). Inicialmente se propuso su realización con el B/O García del Cid para Julio de 2010 pero, por imprevistos en el calendario del buque, finalmente será ejecutado en julio de 2011. El objetivo científico del experimento es determinar los mecanismos y magnitud de las transformaciones de las propiedades y estructura de la cuña de agua mediterránea en sus primeras fases de hundimiento en el Golfo de Cádiz oriental. La localización y magnitud de estas transformaciones condiciona los flujos de sal hacia el Atlántico Norte, lo cual es un factor clave en la formación de aguas profundas y, por ende, en el clima de la tierra. Las mediciones se realizarán al Oeste del Estrecho de Gibraltar, en un tramo donde el núcleo de agua mediterránea se hunde unos 400 m mientras fluye primero hacia el Sur, adentrándose en aguas de Marruecos, y después hacia el noroeste, oblicuamente sobre el talud adyacente a la costa española. Durante el experimento se instalarán, en el eje de salida de la cuña de agua mediterránea, dos anclajes con sensores de salinidad-temperatura (micro CTDs) y velocidad del agua (ADCP), mientras desde el B/O García del Cid se realizará un yo-yo en movimiento con un CTD/LADCP (resolución espacial de 1 mn).

Proyecto
Procesos de inestabilidad sedimentaria en el medio marino (200930I178)
Periodo: 2010 – 2010

Proyecto
Estudio magnetotelúrico de la zona volcánica de la Garrotxa (Girona) y del Campo de Gibraltar (200930I089)
Periodo: 2010 – 2010

Proyecto: VENECIA
Integrated sedimentological-geomorphological approach to monitor coastal changes. Comparison between two case studies: the Barcellona littoral and the Venice area. (2008IT0028)
Periodo: 2009 – 2010
Coord.: F.Rizzetto (ISTITUTO DI SCIENZE MARINE (ISMAR), ITALIA)

Proyecto: TERMOCHILE
Diversidad Microbiana en Fuentes Termales a lo largo de un Gradiente de Latitud en los Andes Chilenos (CGL2009-06449-E)
Periodo: 2010 – 2010
Coord.: Díez Moreno, Beatriz Eugenia (ICM)

Proyecto: OCEFIS-2010
I ENCUENTRO DE LA OCEANOGRAFÍA FÍSICA ESPAÑOLA (CTM2009-06509-E)
Periodo: 2010 – 2010
Coord.: Pelegrí Llopart, José Luis (ICM)
Su objetivo fue favorecer la organización del I Encuentro de la Oceanografía Física Española. Este Encuentro, el primero en España de su tipo, se realizó del miércoles 13 al viernes 15 de octubre de 2010, en Barcelona, con la organización local del Departamento de Oceanografía Física del Institut de Ciències del Mar (DOF-ICM) y el Laboratorio de Ingeniería Marítima de la Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (LIM-UPC). El objetivo es crear un punto de encuentro e interacción entre oceanógrafos físicos españoles, que promueva sinergias y colaboraciones en Oceanografía Física y que, de modo natural, conduzca a que el evento se repita con una cierta periodicidad. Con este fin se hizo un serio esfuerzo para que la convocatoria fuese lo más amplia y atractiva posible, con el fin de asegurar una alta participación por parte de la comunidad de oceanógrafos físicos españoles. El resultado fue muy positivo con unos 150 participantes y mas de 140 ponencias, además de una exposición de instrumentación oceanográfica de 6 empresas del sector, y la realización de un acto homenaje a la figura de Gregorio Parrilla.

Proyecto: FOSMICRO
Efecto del fosforo en la distribución, producción y diversidad de microorganismos marinos (CTM2009-07679-E)
Periodo: 2009 – 2010
Coord.: Sebastián Caumel, Marta (ICM)
Las bacterias aeróbicas anoxigénicas fototróficas (AAPs) constituyen un grupo de microorganismos mixotróficos, cuya relevancia en el océano no está del todo clara. Estos organismos contienen bacterioclorofila a (BChla) y aunque no son capaces de fijar CO2, pueden utilizar la luz para generar ATP lo que les aporta una ventaja ecológica frente a otros heterótrofos cuando la disponibilidad de C orgánico es limitada. Por ello, cuando inicialmente se descubrieron se pensó que éstas serian abundantes en ambientes oligotróficos, dónde de hecho pueden representar hasta el 10-20% del total de procariotas. Sin embargo, más tarde se vió que las AAPs también pueden ser abundantes en ambientes eutróficos por lo que no está muy claro cúal es su papel ecológico. Con esta Acción Complementaria hemos obtenido financiación para participar en un proyecto de circunnavegación global del océano (Tara-Oceans) dónde convertiremos un fluorómetro convencional en uno ultrasensible en el infrarojo que permite detectar de forma rápida y sencilla la presencia de AAPs. Este instrumento será utilizado también en el proyecto de circunnavegación Malaspina. Tara-Oceans durante tres años, y Malaspina en 7 meses recorrerán las principales provincias oceánicas. Estas dos campañas oceanográficas nos brindan una oportunidad única de estudiar la dinámica de las AAPs a escala global, en ambientes de distinto nivel trófico nunca estudiados anteriormente, lo que sin duda aportará información de gran valor para entender su papel ecológico en el océano y su impacto en el ciclo del C. Summary: Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPs) are a group of mixotrophic organisms, which role in the ocean is still unclear. These organisms contain bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla), and, although they are not capable of fixing CO2, they can generate ATP using light energy, which could give them an ecological advantage under carbon limiting conditions. For that reason, it was first postulated that they would be very abundant in the oligotrophic ocean, where they can in fact make up to 10-20% of the total of prokaryotes. However, later on the AAPs were found to be also abundant in eutrophic environments, and therefore their ecological role is still controversial. This project has provided funding to participate in the global ocean expedition Tara-Oceans. We will upgrade a standard fluorometer into an ultra-sensitive infrared fluorometer that can easily register the signal of AAP bacteria. The instrument will be used in Tara-Oceans but also in the Malaspina expedition, which will sail the main provinces of the world’s oceans. These two circumnavigation cruises will allow us to study the dynamics of AAPs at a global scale, in environments of different trophic level never studied before. The data obtained will definitely contribute significantly to understand which is the ecological role of AAPs in the ocean and their impact in the carbon cycling.

Proyecto: ESCLAT
Evolución del Sistema del Carbono a lo largo de la Latitud 8ºN del Atlántico (CTM2009-07405-E)
Periodo: 2009 – 2010

Proyecto: DECAPOP
Estructura poblacional y discontinuidades oceanográficas en crustáceos decápodos en la región Atlanto-Mediterránea (CGL2009-12912-C03-03)
Periodo: 2010 – 2010
Coord.: MAURO SANTOS (Dept. Genètica i Microbiologia – Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona)
The aim of this project, performed in collaboration with the Univertsity of Barcelona, is to relate population traits (size structure, reproductive features, morphology, genetics) with latitudinal clines and oceanographic structures in representative crustaceans of the continental shelf and upper slope exploited communities of the Atlanto-Mediterranean region. In this sense, the knowledge of the biology and spatial distribution of key species within fishery-exploited ecosystems constitutes a basic step towards understanding the impact of fishing and hence to develop an efficient management strategy. Atlantic water flows into the Mediterranean through the Strait of Gibraltar. The interaction between lighter Atlantic water and higher density Mediterranean water generates two main oceanographic fronts, which may affect dispersion of marine organisms and connectivity among populations. The Almeria-Oran front is a semi permanent boundary between surface water masses formed by the convergence of Atlantic waters and modified Mediterranean waters. It has been shown to act as a barrier to gene flow in several species. Atlantic water also forms episodical eddies that detach northwards, reaching the Balearic Islands and forming a second density front when encountering the Catalano-Balearic basin, which may also restrict population connectivity. The study of population biology and genetic features of characteristic species of exploited bottoms will allow the comparative study of their life history strategies. We have selected phylogenetically-close species as well as some additional characteristic species of the following communities: (a) continental shelf (<200 m): Liocarcinus depurator (Portunidae), Macropodia longipes (Majidae), Pagurus excavatus (Paguridae); (b) upper slope (300-400 m): Macropipus tuberculatus (Portunidae), Munida intermedia (Galatheidae), Pasiphaea sivado (Pasiphaeidae), and (c) middle slope (500-700 m): Munida tenuimana (Galatheidae), Pagurus alatus (Paguridae), Pasiphaea multidentata (Pasiphaeidae), Polycheles typhlops (Polychelidae). Except for Pasiphaeidae, which show benthopelagic habits with daily migrations into the pelagic environment (with a probable higher dispersion in the adult phase), the rest of species show epibenthic habits with restricted adult dispersal. Some information on their population biology and genetic structure, collected in previous projects and trawl surveys, is already available. Given the abundance of Liocarcinus depurator on the continental shelf, this species will be studied in more detail. It is a predator crab common on the continental shelf and upper slope of the north-east Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, where it occupies a central role in the maintenance of community structure in continental shelf muddy bottoms. The study of temporal variability in its population biology will provide useful information for understanding its life history. There are also some evidences showing a decrease of its populations along the last decades. This, coupled with the winter reproduction pattern in the Mediterranean, makes it a suitable candidate for its populations to be negatively affected by global warming. We aim to study the variability in its life history population features, namely population dynamics, morphological and genetic characteristics, in relation with the available geographical and interanual information, and obtaining the newly required data needed to put it into the global change context.

Proyecto
Descripción y distribución de las fases larvarias de los organismos marinos de gran profundidad en aguas del cañón de Blanes (Mediterráneo Occidental) (200930I057)
Periodo: 2010 – 2010

Proyecto: NEAREST-CORE
Observaciones integradas de estructuras tsunamigénicas en el Golfo de Cadiz: Realización de la campaña marina NEAREST-CORE (CTM2008-04938-E)
Periodo: 2009 – 2010

Proyecto: IMAGEN
Aplicación de nuevas metodologías en el análisis de imágenes marinas (CTM2009-06027-E/MAR)
Periodo: 2009 – 2010
La obtención de imágenes marinas a distintas profundidades y hábitats bentónicos es técnicamente asequible y eficiente, lo que genera un gran número de información a analizar. Cuantificar el área de cobertura de las comunidades bentónicas es un aspecto muy importante en la investigación marina. La cuantificación de la cobertura se basa en el recuento de las áreas de las diferentes especies (e.g. esponjas, corales) o grupos de categorías (e.g. substrato de sedimento fino recientemente removido por barcos pesqueros) en función de la escala de estudio. Esta información fundamental es la base de estudios de biodiversidad, de caracterización de las comunidades y de evaluación de cambios a lo largo de un eje temporal/espacial Actualmente, no existen métodos de análisis eficaces para obtener información ecológicamente relevante de las imágenes. Con el fin de mejorar el análisis de imágenes de comunidades bentónicas marinas es necesario integrar nuevas herramientas informáticas desde una perspectiva multidisciplinar, aunando diversas visiones y aproximaciones (e.g. ingeniería y ecología), de tal forma que propicien el desarrollo de herramientas y productos efectivos. El presente proyecto constituye una propuesta ambiciosa y realista con la que se quiere poner a punto una herramienta informática eficaz para el cálculo de las áreas de las especies/categorías de las comunidades bentónicas marinas para determinar objetiva y semi-automáticamente la cobertura de los fondos marinos. Disponer de esta información generará avances importantes en el estudio y evaluación de las comunidades bentónicas marinas. El desarrollo de este programa informático es una necesidad planteada desde gran cantidad de institutos, universidades y organizaciones que se dedican al estudio de las comunidades bentónicas marinas a través del análisis de imágenes. Estas instituciones reclaman útiles de trabajo que ayuden al proceso semi-automático de las imágenes. Este programa informático tendrá una aplicación inmediata en la mejora del procesamiento del cálculo de áreas, dentro de un intervalo de tiempo óptimo y con una repercusión tanto a nivel nacional como internacional.

Proyecto: IOVWST’10
International Ocean Vector Wind Science Team Workshop (CTM2009-08641-E/MAR)
Periodo: 2010 – 2010
Este congreso es el primero a nivel internacional que se dedica exclusivamente a la explotación de observaciones de campos de viento en la superficie del océano a partir de mediciones de satélite. Tiene un carácter marcadamente multidisciplinar ya que en él se congregan expertos en desarrollo de instrumentos (ingenieros) e interpretación geofísica de las observaciones (teledetección), usuarios finales de estas observaciones (científicos oceanógrafos, meteorólogos y climatólogos) y representantes de las diferentes agencias espaciales (responsables de estos instrumentos/satélites) y centros operacionales. Con este congreso se quiere crear un punto de encuentro e interacción entre los diferentes expertos que promueva sinergias y colaboraciones con el fin de optimizar la explotación de este tipo de observaciones, establecer los requerimientos para futuras misiones, y proponer nuevos sistemas de observación que cumplan con dichos requerimientos.

Proyecto: COMSOM2
Campaña del proyecto COMSOM:”Evaluación estado de comunidades bentónicas impactadas por pesca y basura marina” (CTM2008-04206-E)
Periodo: 2009 – 2010
http://comsom.cmima.csic.es/content/campa%C3%B1

Proyecto: SEDNA
InStalación de obsErvatorios submarinos De aguas profuNdas y somerAs. Acción para la futura red submarina a escala europea (CTM2009-06366-E)
Periodo: 2009 – 2010
Coord.: Piera Fernández, Jaime (UTM)

Proyecto
The 20th Century evolution of Mediterranean exploited demersal resources under increasing fishing disturbance and environmental change
Periodo: 2009 – 2010

Proyecto: SOLAS OSC
Solas Open Science Conference (CTM2009-05447-E)
Periodo: 2009 – 2010

Proyecto: MAGMAMAL
Magnetotelurica Marina en el Mar de Alboran (CTM2009-07039-E)
Periodo: 2009 – 2010

Proyecto: EOJELLY
EOJelly
Periodo: 2009 – 2010

Proyecto: SEMINARI
Seminario sobre geología, morfodinámica y gestión de la zona costera: investigaciones actuales y perspectivas (CTM2008-03256-E)
Periodo: 2009 – 2009

Proyecto: CASCADES 2
Campaña CASCADES 2 (CTM2008-03746-E)
Periodo: 2009 – 2009

Proyecto: PROSEDAMS
Procesado de la Señal aplicado a Datos Marinos y Sísmicos (CGL2008-05116-E/BTE)
Periodo: 2009 – 2009
Organización de un congreso európeo sobre procesado de la señal aplicado a datos marinos y sísmicos